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The purpose of this literature review was to explore theoretical models of dinking behaviors for their potential usefulness in nusing research and practice. Drinking behaviors are related to biopsychosoical factors. According to recent epidemiological surveys, the alcoholic problems in Korea were serious, but research of drinking behaviors in Korea was not sufficient for full understanding of alcoholic disorders and drinking behaviors in terms of biopsychosocial factors. Although reaserch on the causes of drinking behaviors has traditionally been heavily influenced by pharmacological and genetic explnations, recent findings have drawn attention to social-cognitive theories as a potentially critical element in etiological matrix. Any useful theoretical model for drinking behavior must address at least the following three questions. First, why do people start drinking? Second, what factors maintain drinking? Third, why do some drink as to develop serious problems? To answer these questions, many theoretical models for drinking behaviors were developed so far. 7 theories were reviewed in this article : The disease models, Learning theories, Social Cognitive theories, Biological theories, Personality theories, Psychoanalytical theories and Socio-cultural theories. Each of these theories explains the causative factors of drinking behaviors but do not allow the answer for above questions alone. Development of more comprehensive model is needed. More prospective, longitudinal studies are needed before a certain theory can be recommended. This article will contribute to develop a comprehesive theory and to facilitate the fruitful reaserch for drinking behaviors in the future.
The purposes of the present study were to examine the collective perceptions and attitudes of lay person relying on the social representation theory. The sample consisted of 110 adults(44 men and 66 wemen). Data were obtained by asking the respondents to complete ten sentences, Which begin with the mentally ill is. The results were revealed as follows : 1. Lay person show a great dispositional accounts about the mentally ill. 2. Lay person have not controllable factors the causal perception about mental illness. 3. Lay person have negative feeling about the mentally ill. 4. Lay person show a great accounts about the effects of mental illness. 5. Lay person emphasis love and caring as well as socio-medical strateges. Overall, lay person have negative attitudes toward the mentally ill and mental illness. Correct and in-depth understanding of lay persons' perceptions and attitudes will help us map out future directions and development the public mental health education programs. Findings of the study could serve as a baseline data developing the new programs for mental health education.
The purposes of this study were to understand the meaning and to explore the factors that influence constructs of subjective well-being of the Korean elderly. A total of 60 participants, aged 65-84, were recruited for this study. Data were gathered by means of structural personal interviews. Sixty qualitative data were coded by the content analysis method. The content analysis confirmed three features of subjective well-being: family, finances, and health. Family plays the foremost important role. Family harmony and familial well-being were the most important determinants of the Korean elderly's happiness, even surpassing the role of finances and health. The findings suggest that family has positive impacts on the Korean elderly's subjective well-being. The implications and limitations of this study, and directions for future research are discussed. 본 연구는 한국 노인의 주관적 안녕감의 의미와 주관적 안녕감 구성에 영향을 미치는 요인들을 파악하기 위한 목적으로 수행되었다. 이를 위해 65세 이상 남녀노인 60명(65-84세)을 선발하여 구조화된 개별 면담을 실시하였다. 내용분석방법으로 60명의 질적인 자료를 분석하였다. 내용분석 결과 한국노인들의 주관적 안녕감과 관련된 특성으로서 가족과의 관계, 경제상태 및 건강상태 요인이 확인되었다. 본 연구를 통하여 경제상태와 건강상태가 좋은 것보다 가족이 평안하고, 가족과의 관계가 원만한 것이 한국노인들의 주관적 안녕에 더 중요한 역할을 하는 것으로 드러났다. 본 연구결과는 한국노인의 주관적 안녕감에 있어서 가족이 긍정적인 영향을 미침을 시사한다. 끝으로 본 연구의 의의, 제한점 및 추후 연구방향이 제시되었다.
본 연구는 한국노인의 주관적 안녕감을 적절히 설명하는 모형을 발견하기 위해 수행되었다. 남녀 노인(65세~84세) 495명을 대상으로 노인의 성격요인, 성역할 정체감, 가족지원, 유교적 가치와 주관적 안녕감간의 관계를 규명하고, 이러한 관계를 개인자존심과 가족자존심이 부분적으로 매개하는 구조모형을 가설적 모형으로 제시하였다. 분석 결과 신경증은 개인자존감, 정서적 안녕을 통해 간접적으로 삶의 만족도를 떨어뜨리고, 남성성, 여성성, 가족지원 및 유교적 가치는 자존심(개인, 가족), 정서적 안녕감을 통하여 간접적으로 삶의 만족도를 증가시키는 것으로 나타났다. 게다가 신경증과 가족지원은 정서적 안녕감에 직접적인 효과를 보였다. 그러므로 신경증은 노인의 주관적 안녕감을 위협하는 요인이었으며, 남성성, 여성성, 가족지원 및 유교적 가치는 노인의 주관적 안녕감을 보호하는 요인으로 나타났다. 노인의 주관적 안녕감을 설명하는데 있어서 개인자존심은 신경증, 남성성 및 여성성이 주관적 안녕감에 미치는 영향을 매개하였다. 대안적 모형을 검토한 결과, 개인자존심에 의한 완전매개 모형이 보다 적합한 모형인 것으로 나타났다. 즉 가족자존심도 주관적 안녕감에 미치는 직접효과가 나타나지 않고 개인자존심을 통해서 안녕감에 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 끝으로 본 연구의 의의, 제한점 및 추후 연구방향이 제시되었다. The current study investigated a structural model of a partially mediating role of self-esteem in the relationship among antecedents variables (neuroticism, extroversion, masculinity, femininity, familial support, & Confucian values) and subjective well-being of Korean elderly. Data were collected through the structured individual interview from a sample of 495 elderly people (122 men & 371 women, aged 64~84). Results from the structural equation model analysis (LISREL 8) showed that the hypothesized model exhibited proper a fit to the data. The analysis showed that the individual self-esteem mediated the effects of neuroticism, masculinity, and femininity on subjective well-being. Familial self-esteem also mediated the effects of femininity, familial support, and Confucian value on subjective well-being. Furthermore the neuroticism and familial support had direct effects on emotional well-being. Two alternative role (completely mediating or no mediating) models regarding the self-esteem were tested. The model of completely mediating role of self-esteem fitted the data best. In this model, even familial self-esteem influences the subjective well-being through individual self-esteem. Implications and needs for future research are discussed.
The goal of this study was to examine the mediation role of coping in the relationship between life stress and depression in college students. Data were obtained from a sample of 270 female college students at four universities in a metropolitan area. All eight multivariate outliers were deleted leaving 262 cases for analysis. The results, based on structural equation model, showed that problem-focused coping style and emotion-focused coping style mediated the effect of life stress on depression. Female college students who had a higher level of life stress had a higher frequency of problem focused coping style, and had a lower level of depression. But those who had a higher level of life stress had a higher frequency of emotion-focused coping style, and had a higher level of depression. The results of this study suggest that female college students frequently used both types of coping style when responding to life stress, and problem-focused coping style is more effective than emotion-focused coping style in reducing the deleterious effects associated with life stress in female college students. Furthermore, the use of emotion-focused coping style may lead to additional emotional problem for individuals in the future. The present study reveals the relationships between life stress, depression, and coping style, provides a general framework to develop stress counseling intervention strategies and guides future research on the coping style 본 연구는 여자대학생들의 생활스트레스와 우울간의 관계에서 대처방식이 매개역할을 하는지를 알아보고자 하였다. G광역시에 소재한 4개 대학에 재학 중인 270명의 여자대학생들을 설문조사하여, 극단치로 추정되는 8명을 제외시킨 262명의 자료를 최종분석에 사용하였다. 공변량 구조분석 결과 문제 중심적 대처방식과 정서 중심적 대처방식이 생활스트레스가 우울에 미치는 영향을 매개하는 효과가 있음이 밝혀졌다. 즉 생활스트레스 수준이 높은 여자 대학생들이 문제 중심적 대처방식을 많이 사용하면 우울증상이 떨어지는 반면에, 정서 중심적 대처방식을 많이 사용하게 되면 우울증이 증가하였다. 이 연구 결과는 여자 대학생들이 생활스트레스에 직면할 때 문제 중심적 대처방식과 정서 중심적 대처방식을 다 사용하지만 생활스트레스와 관련된 부정적 효과를 감소시키기 위해서는 정서 중심적 대처방식보다 문제 중심적 대처방식이 더 효과적임을 시사한다. 또한 정서 중심적 대처방식의 과도한 사용은 그 개인에게 부가적 정서적 문제들을 야기 할 수 있어서 바람직하지 않음을 의미한다. 본 연구는 생활스트레스, 우울 및 대처방식간의 관계를 규명하였고, 스트레스 상담 개입전략에 대한 일반적 틀과 대처방식에 대한 향후 연구방향을 제공하였다는데 연구의 의의가 있다.
N/A Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of victims of sexual violence. Method: The data were collected through more than three times of in-depth interview with 9 participants who are raped. The research question was what was it like to experience sexual violence? The analysis of data was made by Colaizzi`s(1978) phenomenological analytic method. Result: Eight main meaningful themes were identified: 1) Rather to die, 2) being afraid of recurrence of the event, 3) suffering from the memory about the event, 4) difficulties in expressing themselves and seeking for help, 5) worrying about unwanted pregnancy and venereal infection, 6) surging of anger about unfair treated by officials and sexual counselors 7) being inconsiderate of significant others and reproach to the offender, and 8) self-blame for the situation that didn`t get back. conclusion: This study revealed the lived experiences of victims of sexual violence. Further studies are needed to provide theories and practices fur caring them.
Purpose: This study was to explore the predictors of subjective well-being of Korean older adults. Method: Data were collected through the structured interview using questionnaire with 199 older adults over 60 years. To identify the most effective predictor of the SWB, a stepwise regression analysis was conducted on each subscale of SWB measure. Results: The results showed that receiving support from family was the effective factor of life satisfaction. Receiving support from family, health, optimism, economy, positive reappraisal, and giving support to family were the effective factors of emotional well-being. Conclusion: This study found that family support was the most important predictor on SWB among Korean older adults.
Purpose: The study examined factors related to the meaning in life in elderly in one city. Methods: The sample consisted of 217 subjects all of which were over 60 years of age and were recruited from two community senior centers from December 2008 to February 2009. Data collection instruments were the Meaning in Life Scale, Social Support Index, CES-D, and RULS questionnaire. SPSS/WIN 17.0 was used for descriptive analysis, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, and correlation coefficient. Results: The mean of the score from the Meaning in Life was 50.04 (range 10~70). There were significant differences in subjects' perception of meaning in life according to age, level of education, religion, having a spouse, satisfaction with relationship with children, and frequency of visits to a community senior center. Meaning in life was significantly correlated with family support, depression, and loneliness, which were significant predictors (21.5%) of meaning in life. Conclusion: To improve meaning in life of the elderly who visited a community senior center, nurses may pay attention to depression, loneliness, and family support.
This study investigated a model of the mediating influences of anger-control and contact with delinquent friends in the relationship among socio-environmental school violence risk factors, protective factors and bullying at school. Data came from 311 junior high school students in Gwangju City. Results from the structural analysis indicated that, as hypothesized, anger-control mediated the effects of family environmental protective factors (communication with parents, parents' supervision) on bullying at school. And the relationship between school environmental violence protective factors (attachment to teacher, attachment to school) and bullying at school is explained by school environmental violence protective factor relations with two intervening constructs, anger-control and contact with delinquent friends. Furthermore, community environmental risk factor (exposure to media violence) had direct effect on bullying at school, as well as contact with delinquent friends mediated the relationship between exposure to media violence and bullying at school. In addition 3 alternative models were estimated. The results of the tests of the 3 alternative models were not supported by the data, further sustaining the validity of the hypothesized model. Lastly, implications and future research directions are discussed. 본 연구는 중학생 311명을 대상으로 하여 가정(의사소통, 부모감독), 학교(교사애착, 학교애착), 지역의 심리사회적 환경요인(폭력매체 노출)이 분노조절과 비행친구의 접촉을 통하여 학교폭력 가해행동을 유발하는지를 알아보고자 하였다. 공변량 구조분석 결과 청소년들의 심리사회적 가정환경이 분노조절을 통하여 학교폭력에 간접적으로 부적인 영향을 미치고, 심리사회적 학교환경이 분노조절과 비행친구의 접촉을 통하여 학교폭력 가해행동에 간접적으로 부적인 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 청소년들의 지역의 심리사회적 환경요인이 학교폭력 가해행동을 직접 유발할 뿐만 아니라 비행친구의 접촉을 통하여 학교폭력 가해행동을 간접적으로 유발하는 것으로 확인되었다. 본 연구결과가 청소년 학교폭력 예방과 상담적 개입에 어떤 시사점을 제공할 수 있는지와 연구의 제한점 및 앞으로의 연구방향이 논의되었다.