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The conditions of cold stroage of Citrus unshiu Marc. var. okitsu produced in Cheju were investigated. The changes of peel moisture contents soluble solids, total sugar, vitamin C and density were slightly occured, and decay ratio was below 20% on keeping freshness relatively till late of March during cold storage. After thats decayed citrus fruits were increased gradually mainly from cold injury with lower temperature and high humidity. The loss of fruit weight, decrease of fruit hardness, and decrease of acid content were occured gradually during cold stroage. Because of the difficulty of long term storage for Citrus unshiu, the conditions and periods of cold storage would be determined after considering the physicochemical properties of fruits every year.
Extracts of Acanthopanax koreanum Nakai were decreased as the ethanol concentration was increased, but eleutherosides were increased. Extracts were increased as the extraction time was prolonged. Compared to 15 hrs extraction, extract yield and eleutherosides for 5 hrs extraction were 90.6% and 96%, respectively. Yields of extract and eleutherosides were 6.5% and 75% at 100℃. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained from the samples of 4 years' tree harvested at September, which were water and 50% ethanol as solvents, and 90℃ for 5 hrs extraction. Soluble solids, minerals, free sugars, free acids, free amino acids and total eleuthersides in the extract of Acanthopanax koreanum were 48.2∼47.4%, 4.5∼5.3%, 11.27∼11.80%, 3.02∼3.18%, 185.33 ㎎/100 g∼348.14 ㎎/100 g and 990.84 ㎎/100 g∼1,416.10 ㎎/100 g, respectively. The extract was viscous and yellowish brown liquid.
Satsuma mandarin(Citrus unshiu Marc. var. miyagawa) was stored at 3℃ and 85% relative huifidity, and then the changes of firmness, pectin- degrading enzymes activity and other physicochemical properties of citrus fruits during storage were investigated. Firmness of fruits with 2 ㎜ probe was decreased quickly from 1,176.8 g-force to 503.6 g-force, and moisture of peel and flesh were decreased from 75.3% to 74.9% and from 91.8% to 90.7% during maturation, respectively, Decay ratio was increased to 18.75% after 90 days' storage, and after then it was increased rapidly. Weight loss was increased gradually to 24.5% during long-term storage. Firmness with 2 ㎜ probe were decreased from 538.9 g-force to 336.9 g-force gradually during storage. Peel moisture was decreased from 75.8% to 72.6%, and flesh moisture was also decreased gradually from 90.3% to 88.3% during storage. Exopoly-galacturonase activity of peel and flesh were increased from 326.0 units/100g to 534.9 units/100g, and from 63.1 units/100g to 81.0 units/100g at 90 day's storage, respectively. After then, the enzyme activities were decreased form 394.0 units/100g and 38.0 units/100g, respectively. Pectinesterase activity of peel and flesh were increased form 14.4 μ㏖ to 38.8 μ㏖, and from 26.0 μ㏖ to 39.0 μ㏖ at 60 days' storage, respectively. After then, the enzyme activities were decreased to 6.0 μ㏖ and 8.2 μ㏖, respectively.
In order to determine the optimum harvest time of Acanthopanax koreanum Nakai, free sugars, organic acids, amino acids and minerals were investigated. Ash, crude fat and crude protein of 4-age's tree of Acanthopanax koreanum were 2.98%∼3.90%, 1.93%∼2.34%, 3.52%∼4.23%, respectively. Minerals were 835.9 ㎎/100 g of K, 971.3 ㎎/100 g of Ca, 168.7 ㎎/100 g of Mg, 38.8 ㎎/100 g of Na, 18.6 ㎎/100 g of Fe, and 8.5 ㎎/100 g of Cu on average, respectively. Calcium content was increased distinguishably as late as harvest time, especially in stem and root. Glucose, fructose and sucrose content of stem were 0.71∼0.75%, 0.31∼0.03%, and 0.16∼0.21%, respectively. Organic acid was 381.0 ㎎/100 g∼504.9 ㎎/100 g, and was mainly consisted of succinic acid, citric acid and malic acid. Twelve kinds of free amino acids were detected. Total amino acids was 33.56 ㎎/100g∼48.60 ㎎/100 g, and it was the highest on samples harvested at September. Arginine, phenylalanine and glutamic acid were the main free amino acids of stems.
Soluble solids (。Brix), acid content and vitamin C content of Citrus miyakawa unshiu and C. okitsu unshiu juice harvested middle of November 1993 in Seuho-Dong and Topyung-Dong, Seogwipo-si, south area of Cheju were 10.7∼11.0, 1.04% and 41.19∼44.94 ㎎/100 g juice, respectively. Carbohydrate was consisted of about ½ sucrose, ¼glucose. and ¼ fructose. Fruit weight, peel thickness, soluble solids, pH, acid content and Brix/Acid ratio had a good correlation in linear function with increasing fruit size, respectively. However, hardness and edible part ratio were not showed correlation with increasing fruit size. Middle size of citrus fruit was favorable to panelists, and the citrus peel color of red yellow was more favorable than pale yellow color in sensory evaluation. Sensory evaluation score showed a linear correlation among citrus fruits of C. okitsu unshiu produced in Namwon-ri, Seuho-Dong, Seogwipo-si, south area of Cheju, and that of Chochun-ri, Ara-Dong, Cheju-si, north area of Cheju, and the score was higher according to citrus fruit produced in optimum cultivation area. With increasing Brix/Acid ratio of citrus juice, high sensory evaluation score was gained in panelists. These data obtained are supposed to be applied to the quality evaluation of Citrus unshiu produced in Cheju.