http://chineseinput.net/에서 pinyin(병음)방식으로 중국어를 변환할 수 있습니다.
변환된 중국어를 복사하여 사용하시면 됩니다.
개별검색 DB통합검색이 안되는 DB는 DB아이콘을 클릭하여 이용하실 수 있습니다.
통계정보 및 조사
예술 / 패션
<해외전자자료 이용권한 안내>
- 이용 대상 : RISS의 모든 해외전자자료는 교수, 강사, 대학(원)생, 연구원, 대학직원에 한하여(로그인 필수) 이용 가능
- 구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색 및 등록된 대학IP 대역 내에서 24시간 무료 이용
- 미구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색을 통한 오후 4시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용
※ 단, EBSCO ASC/BSC(오후 5시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용)
Actinomycosis is a subacute or chronic suppurative infection caused by Actinomycesspecies, which are anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria that normally colonize the humanmouth and digestive and urogenital tracts. Cervicofacial actinomycosis is the mostfrequent clinical form of actinomycosis, and is associated with odontogenic infection. Characterized by an abscess and mandibular involvement with or without fistula, but thecervicofacial form of actinomycosis is often misdiagnosed because the presentation isnot specific and because it can mimic numerous infectious and non-infectious diseases,including malignant tumors. We report a rare case of actinomycosis infection with coexistingsubmandibular sialolithiasis. The patient presented with a 1×1 cm abscess-likelesion below the lower lip. Punch biopsy of the lesion revealed atypical squamous cellproliferation with infiltrative growth, suggestive of squamous cell carcinoma. The patientunderwent wide excision of this lesion, where the lesion was found to be an abscess formationwith multiple submandibular sialolithiases. The surgical specimen was found tocontain Actinomyces without any evidence of a malignant process. We assumed that associatedpredisposing factors such as poor oral hygiene may have caused a dehydratedcondition of the oral cavity, leading to coexistence of actinomycosis and sialolithiasis.
Our previous finding that pre-initiation treatment of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) represents a chemopreventive effect in dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)- induced mammary carcinogenesis has prompted us to test the global expression of genes at an early stage. Rats were continuously fed 300 ppm I3C in their diet at 6 weeks of age and were injected with DMBA at 7 weeks of age, and were sacrificed at 8 weeks of age. Global gene expression analysis using oligonucleotide microarrays was conducted to detect altered genes in DMBA- or DMBA plus I3C-treated mammary glands. Altered genes were identified by fold changes of 1.2 and by t-test (P⁄0.05) from the log ratios of the hybridization intensity of samples between control (Group 1) and DMBA (Group 2), and from those of samples between DMBA (Group 2) and DMBA plus I3C (Group 3). From these genes, we chose altered genes that were up- or down-regulated by DMBA treatment and recovered to the control level by I3C treatment. For early stage of carcinogenesis, I3C treatment induced the recovery to normal levels of several genes including cell cycle pathway (cyclin B2, cell division cycle 2 homolog A), MAP signaling pathway (fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, platelet derived growth factor receptor, beta polypeptide), and insulin signaling (protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 3B and flotillin 2), which were up-regulated by DMBA treatment. In addition, I3C treatment induced the recovery to normal levels of several genes including those of MAPK signaling (transforming growth factor, beta receptor 1 and protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit, beta isoform), which were down-regulated by DMBA treatment. These results suggest that the targeting of these genes presents a possible approach for chemoprevention in DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis.
형광바이오이미징과 조직병리학적 분석을 통해콜라겐 항체유발 관절염(collagen antibody-induced arthritis; CAIA)의 병변양상을 분석하여 보고자 하였다. 수컷 BALB/c 마우스를 세 군으로 나누어 1군과2군은 0.9% 생리식염수로 처리하고, 3군은 실험 개시일에 anti-type II collagen 5-clone antibody cocktail로 처리한 후 3일째 lipopolysaccharide를 처치하였다. 7일째 형광프로브인 OsteoSense®680EX을처치하였다. 형광프로브 처치 5시간 후에 avertin 마취하에서 형광강도를 조사하였다. 8일째 마우스는살처분하고 뒤발 무릎관절을 10% 중성포르말린에고정하여 조직병리학적 검사를 수행하였다. 형광바이오이미징 검사결과 형광 강도는 1군 혹은 2군과비교하여 3군의 관절에서 증가되었다. 조직병리학적검사결과 1군과 2군에서는 염증 혹은 조직손상은없었다. 3군은 염증세포의 침윤과 활막의 국소적 과형성과 몇몇 연골세포의 미세한 변성이 관찰되었다. 본 실험결과 anti-type II collagen 5-clone antibody cocktail와 lipopolysaccharide에 의해 관절염이 유발되었다. 본 연구결과 형광바이오이미징 검사와 조직병리학적 검사를 통해 생체내 관절염을 검출할 수 있었다. Fluorescence bioimaging and histopathological analyses were used to investigate the progression of collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA). Male BALB/c mice were divided separately into three groups. The mice of group 1 (G1) and group 2 (G2) were treated with 0.9% saline and those of group 3 (G3) were boosted with anti-type II collagen 5-clone antibody cocktail at days 0. At day 3, the mice of G1 and G2 were treated with 0.9% saline and those of G3 were treated with lipopolysaccharide. At day 7, mice in G2 and G3 were treated with OsteoSense®680EX. Fluorescence bioimaging was taken at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 18 and 24 h after fluorescence probe treatment under anesthesia of avertin. All mice were sacrificed at day 8 after collagen cocktail treatment and all hind knee joints were fixed in 10% neutral phosphate-buffered formalin and histopathological analyses were carried out. Fluorescence bioimaging showed fluorescence intensity was increased in joint of animals in G3 compared to G1 or G2. Histopathological examination of hind joint of mice showed that there was no inflammation or tissue destruction in G1 and G2. In G3, infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed and focal hyperplasia of the synovial lining was observed and some chondrocytes showed slight degeneration. Taken together, in this study, fluorescence bioimaging made it possible to detect the level of arthritis in male mice associated with histopathological examination.
In this study, we investigated global gene expression in rats treated with four hepatocarcinogens. Twenty-five rats were divided randomly into five groups (n=5 per group), and animals of each group were orally intubated with prednisolone, dehydroepiandrosterone, hydrocortisone, lithocholic acid or vehicle (DMSO), respectively. All animals were sacrificed at 48 h after chemical treatment. At necropsy, half of livers were fixed in 10% phosphate-buffered formalin, and routinely processed for embedding in paraffin, and staining of 4 mm sections with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathological examination. And the remaining samples from all the animals were snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen for RNA extraction and subsequent analysis. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) analysis represented that Gene Set associated with hepatocarcinogenesis were discovered as showing up-regulated genes from 1st to 50th including xenobiotic genes such as ‘chemokine(C-Cmotif) receptor 3’ and down-regulated genes from 1s tto 50th including xenobiotic genes such as ‘proteosome’. KEGG pathway analysis showed that fifteen pathways such as ‘MAPK signaling pathway’ were related to up-regulated genes and fifteen pathways such as ‘biosynthesis of steroid’ and regulation of actin cytoskeleton’ were associated with down-regulated genes. Our results suggest that it may be feasible to differentiate active and inactive hepatocarcinogens by GSEA and KEGG pathway analysis.
“忠恕”是儒家哲学的中心概念之一。 一般所言, “忠恕”是孔子的“一以贯之”之道, 也是以“己所不欲, 勿施于人”为代表的“絜矩之道”。 然而, 在《四书》里, 既是存在着“忠恕”、“恕”等不同说法, 也是包含着与此相关的几种学说。 到程朱哲学, “忠恕”不但成为二者并立的实体概念, 而且发展成贯穿于天道与人道的形上实体 朱子所发挥的忠恕思想, 不但具有忠恕为体用的哲学体系, 而且具有忠恕以贯通天道人道的理论特色 此“忠恕”是以曾子言之“夫子之道, 忠恕而已矣”为代表的概念, 它既包含体用结构, 又圣人与学者之不同层次。 相对的, 孔子所言的“其恕乎!己所不欲, 勿施于人”的命题, 只代表“推己及人”之“恕”, 只属于下工夫处。 丁茶山指出《四书》里的“忠恕”原本指“恕”。 孔子说的“一以貫之”的道本身是指“恕”, 而“忠”则是所以实行“恕”之一种条件或是方法。 丁茶山的这些解释是正面反驳朱子对忠恕的解释的。 当代学者的解释各有不同, 这些解释都与古代儒家的忠恕学说有关系。 程朱之学说、 茶山之解释以及《四书》本身具有的复杂系统, 使得当代学者提出各自不同的观点。
The expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) was investigated in early phase of hepatocarcinogenesis induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Sixty ICR mice were divided into two groups and treated with saline (group 1) or DEN (group 2, 10 mg/kg of body weight, i.p. injection) at 14 days of age, and were sacrificed at 6 h and 1, 2, 3, 7, and 28 days after treatment of saline or DEN. At necropsy, half of the liver from saline- or DEN-treated mice was processed for histopathological examination and immunohistochemical staining of EpCAM and apoptosis. And the remaining liver tissue was snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen for RNA extraction and analysis of EpCAM mRNA expression. Immunohistochemical examination showed that EpCAM expression was detected only in a small number of hepatocytes from saline-treated mice and its expression was detected in bile duct cells and round cells around portal area, as well as hepatocytes in the livers of DEN-treated mice. And multiple apoptotic cells were found in the livers of mice treated with DEN. EpCAM mRNA expression was significantly higher in DEN-treated mice at 1, 7, and 28 days compared to saline-treated ones at 6 h (P<0.01). Taken together, EpCAM expression and apoptosis were increased in liver by DEN treatment.
장재는 중국이 당 멸망 이후 오대십국의 혼란을 겪은 후 북송의 시대로 진입하였던 시기에 활약했던 철학자이다. 그는 지금의 섬서성 일대인 관중 지역에서 새로운 문명의 전환을 위한 새로운 철학운동을 전개하였다. 북송의 신유가가 저마다 독자적인 철학을 전개하는 가운데, 관학이 지니는 독자성은 기론(氣論)을 중심으로 철학을 전개하였다는 데에서 찾을 수 있다. 장재는 주역의 원리, 기론의 구조, 중용의 이상을 융합하여 새로운 철학체계를 구축하였다. 특히 기로 충만한 우주론과 이를 인간의 본성에 적용시킨 인간론은 기존의 원시 유가에선 찾아볼 수 없는 독자적인 영역을 개척한 것이다. 그는 이 철학 운동을 전개함으로써 당시 만연했던 도교와 불교의 습벽을 깨뜨리고 새로운 문명의 시작을 알리고자 하였다. 장재는 기(氣)의 철학을 무기로 인간세의 모든 것이 무(無)로부터 파생되어 나왔다고 주장하는 도교의 우주생성론을 반박하고, 인간 문명의 모든 것이 허무하고 환상에 불과하다고 말하는 불교의 허무주의를 공격하면서, 중용에 근거한 천인합일의 이상을 대안으로 제시하였다. 그는 기론적 우주론에 근거하여 인성론을 전개하였다. 그는 불교가 인간의 욕망을 없애려고 하였거나 도교가 인간의 욕망을 극대화하려고 했던 양 극단의 모습을 버리고, 인간의 생리적인 욕구를 인정하면서 동시에 이를 도덕 본성으로써 잘 다스려야 한다고 말했다. 문명의 전환기에 장재가 품었던 시대적 사명과 철학운동의 의의는 오늘날에도 여전히 강력한 의미로서 다가온다. Zhaizai han been living in Northern Song Dynasty. He beganto do New Philosophical Movement on Guangzhong Region in the China. We found his Originality among the Theory of Qi. Zhangzai unify the Principle of the Yi, the Structure of the Qi, the Goal of the Zhongyong to show New Philosophcal Structure. Especially, Cosmology, abundant by Qi and Anthropology, applied to human nature, open a new field cannot find from an existing Confucianism. He wanted to let know start of a new civilization after frustrate customs of Buddhism and Daoism which rampant at the time by deploying the philosophy movement. Zhangzai refute the theory of cosmic creation of Taoism by weapon of Qi's philosophy, attacking Buddhist nihilism and offered as an alternative an ideal of unity of God and man based on the moderation.