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      • KCI등재후보

        그람-양성균(Peptidoglycan)으로 유도한 대식세포에서 감태 에탄올 추출물의 항염증 효과

        강옥화,김성배,금준호,문수현,김용식,안병관,안현진,권동렬,Kang, Ok-Hwa,Kim, Sung-Bae,Keum, Joon-Ho,Mun, Su-Hyun,Kim, Yong-Sik,An, Byung-Kwan,An, Hyeon-Jin,Kwon, Dong-Yeul 대한한의학방제학회 2011 大韓韓醫學方劑學會誌 Vol.19 No.1

        Objectives : Ecklonia cava is brown alga(Laminariaceae) which grows is sea, it has antioxidant, diarrhea and anticoagulant effect. In this study, the effect of ethanol extract of Ecklonia cava (EC) on peptidoglycan(PGN) -induced NO production in RAW 264.7 cells was investigated. Methods : In the present study, IL-6 production was measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), prostaglandin $\E_2$($\PGE_2$) production was measured using the EIA kit, and inducible NO synthase(iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2), and mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK) activation, as determined by western blot analysis and reverse transcription -polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). Results : EC inhibited PGN-induced NO and IL-6 production. Consistent with these observations, the protein expression of iNOS and COX-2 were inhibited by EC. Moreover, EC suppressed the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase(ERK) 1/2 in PGN-induced RAW 264.7. Conclusions : These results suggest that EC has inhibitory effects on PGN-induced $\PGE_2$, NO, and IL-6 production, as well as the expressions of iNOS and COX-2 in the murine macrophage. These inhibitory effects occur through blockades on the MAPKs phosphorylation.

      • KCI등재

        원보 : 벌사상자 Ethyl Acetate 분획물의 항염증활성연구

        강옥화 ( Ok Hwa Kang ),김상영 ( Sang Young Kim ),권동렬 ( Dong Yeul Kwon ) 한국생약학회 2015 생약학회지 Vol.46 No.3

        Cnidium monnieri (L). Cussion is used as a tonic agent in traditional oriental medicine. However, the molecular mechanism of mast cell-mediated anti-inflammatory modulation has not been fully understood. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the effects of Cnidium monnieri (L). Cussion eathyl acetate fraction on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as to elucidate its mechanism of action in the human mast cell line (HMC-1). Cells were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187 in the presence or absence of Cnidium monnieri (L). Cussion eathyl acetate fraction. Cnidium monnieri (L). Cussion eathyl acetate fraction significantly inhibited the PMA plus A23187-induction of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Moreover, EtOAc fraction attenuated cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression. In activated HMC-1 cells, phosphorylation of extra-signal response kinase (ERK) 1/2 decreased after treatment with EtOAc fraction. Moreover EtOAc fraction inhibited PMA plus A23187-induced nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation, IκB degradation. EtOAc fraction suppressed the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 through a decrease in the ERK 1/2, as well as activation of NF-κB. These results indicated that Cnidium monnieri (L). Cussion EtOAc fraction exerted a regulatory effect on inflammatory reactions mediated by mast cells.

      • KCI등재

        독일의 사례를 통한 정서,행동장애 영역 특수교육대상자 통합교육 교육과정에 대한 연구

        강옥화 ( Ok Hwa Kang ) 한국정서·행동장애아교육학회(구 한국정서학습장애아교육학회) 2014 정서ㆍ행동장애연구 Vol.30 No.4

        우리나라에서 정서·행동장애를 지닌 특수교육대상자들의 대부분은 일반학교에서 통합교육을 받고 있는 만큼 통합교육환경은 이들 아동 및 청소년 교육의 질을 결정짓는 아주 중요한 요소다. 특히 「장애인 등에 대한 특수교육법」에도 명시되어 있듯이 이들의 교육적 요구를 충족시키기 위해서는 반드시 특성에 적합한 교육과정을 통해 이들의 통합교육이 이루어져야 한다(교육부, 2013a). 하지만 우리나라의 경우 정서·행동장애아를 위한 교육과정이 따로 마련되어 있지 않을 뿐만 아니라 이들의 통합교육 교육과정에 대한 구체적 방안이나 지침 등이 부재한 상태다. 독일의 경우 독립적인 정서·행동장애아 교육과정이 마련되어 있는 주들이 있으며, 그렇지 않은 주들에서는 이들 특수교육대상자들의 특수교육 및 통합교육을 위한 교육과정 관련 지침서를 제공하기도 한다. 그러므로 본 연구에서는 독일의 사례를 연구하여 우리나라 정서·동장애아 통합교육 교육과정의 개발과 발전을 위한 시사점을 찾아보고자 한다. The most students with emotional and behavioral disorders visit general schools in Korea. So it is very important that inclusive education environment is structured in response to educational needs of this students. This decides educational quality for them. Especially appropriate curriculum has to be provided to fulfill their educational needs and to offer best quality for their inclu-sive education. This is clearly stipulated in the Korean 「special education law for the disabled」. There is not special curriculum for students with e- motional and behavioral disorders in Korea. There are not practical guidelines or rules about inclusive education curriculum. The curriculum for school edu-cation of students with emotional and behavioral disorders exists in several states in Germany. There are also curricular guidelines for inclusive education of this students in another sates in Germany. This study proposes to research the case of Germany. It is hoped that this study can contribute to the development of inclusive education curriculum for the students with emotional and behavioral disorders in Korea.

      • KCI등재

        독일 "정서 사회 발달" 영역 특수교육대상자 진단,평가의 실제

        강옥화 ( Ok Hwa Kang ) 한국정서·행동장애아교육학회(구 한국정서학습장애아교육학회) 2013 정서ㆍ행동장애연구 Vol.29 No.3

        최근 정서·행동문제로 가정, 학교, 사회에서 어려움을 겪는 아동과 청소년이 증가하고 있다는 일반적 인식과 함께 이들에 대한 교육지원에 대한 관심이 고조되고 있다. 하지만 이러한 현실에 역행하는 우리나라 교육 통계에 나타나는 정서·행동장애영역 특수교육대상자 수의 급격한 감소(교육과학기술부, 2012a)는 이들 아동 및 청소년의 교육과 지원을 책임지고 있는 전문가들뿐만 아니라 일반교육과 특수 교육 전반에 위기의식을 불러일으키기에 충분하다. 현 실태를 올바로 인식하고 향후 교육지원의 방향을 재정립하기 위해서는 이들 아동과 청소년에 대한 정확한 진단·평가를 실시하여 특수교육요구 여부, 범위와 내용 등을 정확히 파악하는 것이 시급해 보인다. 이러한 문제가 일차적으로 해결된다면 이들의 요구에 보다 부합하는 방안을 간구하여 교육지원의 질적 수준을 개선해갈 수 있을 것이다. 이에 본 연구에서는 정서·행동장애아 진단·평가와 관련된 독일의 사례를 고찰함으로써 우리나라 정서·행동장애아 진단·평가 체제 개선을 위한 시사점을 찾아보고 정서·행동장애아 교육지원의 질적 향상에 기여하고자 한다. Recently, there is a general awareness that the number of children and young people is increasing who have difficulties at home, in school and community because of their emotional and behavioral problems. Based on this, there is a growing interest in education and support for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. But Korean recent statistics for special education run counter to this because in the statistics the number of the students with emotional and behavioral disorders has decreased rapidly. It seems that this makes a sense of crisis by the people who work for this students, also in the whole area of general and special schools. The most pressing issue must be to find out existence, degree and type of special needs by right assessment to be aware of real situations and to reorganize the education and support for these students in the future. We can improve the education and support system for these students which suits their special needs if the problem of the assessment gets resolved as a start. For this reason, the purpose of this study is to research the assessment system for students with emotional and behavioral disorders in Germany to consider how the assessment system can get improved to enhance qualities of whole education and support system for these students in Korea.

      • KCI등재

        독일 “정서와 사회 발달” 영역 특수교육지원 체제

        강옥화 ( Ok Hwa Kang ) 한국정서·행동장애아교육학회(구 한국정서학습장애아교육학회) 2013 정서ㆍ행동장애연구 Vol.29 No.1

        ``장애인 등에 대한 특수교육법``(교육과학기술부, 2012b)의 제정과 함께 기존의 정서장애라는 용어가 정서·행동장애라는 용어로 대체되면서 우리나라 정서·행동 장애 영역 특수교육지원 체제의 개선과 발전에 대한 기대가 커지고 있다. 하지만 최근의 우리나라 정서·행동장애아 교육지원 관련 통계에서도 확인할 수 있듯이 이러한 기대와는 달리 우리나라 정서·행동장애아 교육지원 자원이 전반적으로 축소되고 있지 않나 하는 우려를 갖게 된다. 독일에서도 정서·행동장애 관련 용어 및 정의에 대한 논의들 및 이를 바탕으로 한 교육지원 체제 개선에 대한 노력들이 꾸준히 있어 왔다. 특히 1994년 독일 상임 문교부장관회의가 ``정서와 사회 발달 영역 특수교육지원요구``라는 표현을 도입하면서 정서·행동장애에 대한 새로운 이해가 시도되었으며, 이는 정서·행동장애아 교육지원 체제의 발전에도 지대한 영향을 미쳤음을 알 수 있다. 이에 본 연구자는 독일에서 정서·행동장애와 관련해 어떤 용어와 정의가 사용되고 있는지, 그리고 분리교육에서 통합교육에 이르기까지 정서와 사회 발달 영역 특수교육 대상자의 교육지원이 어떻게 이루어지고 있는지 살펴 봄으로써 향후 우리나라 정서·행동장애 영역 특수교육대상자 교육지원의 발전에 주는 시사점을 찾아보고자 한다. The term ``emotional disturbance`` is changed into the term ``emotional and behavioral disorders`` in ``the law on special education for the disabled, etc``.(2007) in Korea. The expectation is growing that this change will help improve special education and support system for students with emotional and behavioral disorders in Korea. But as recent special education statistics show, the expectation is not fulfilled. In contrast, there are worries about general reduction of special education and support resources. In Germany, the term and definition of emotional and behavioral disorders have been debated by many people. Based on this, it has been tried to improve education and support system for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. People attempt a new understanding of these disorders, especially based on the introduction of the term ``special needs in the field of emotional and social development``(Permanent Conference of the Ministers for Education and Cultural Affairs of the Lander of the Federal Republic of Germany, 1994). This has certainly a wide influence on the development of education and support system for the students in Germany. In this context, the purpose of this study is to research the case of Germany to make a suggestion for the development of special education and support system for students with emotional and behavioral disorders in Korea. The critical research issues of this study include the term and definition, education and support system(from separate to inclusive education) in connection with education of students with special needs in the field of emotional and social development in Germany.

      • KCI등재

        2015 개정 특수교육 기본교육과정에 따른 초등 음악 교과서 개발을 위한 기초 연구: 독일 바이에른 주 음악과 특수교육 교육과정 분석을 중심으로

        강옥화 ( Kang Ok Hwa ),조대현 ( Cho Dae Hyun ) 한국예술교육학회 2016 예술교육연구 Vol.14 No.4

        본 연구는 2015 개정 특수교육 기본교육과정에 따른 음악 교과서 개발을 위한 기초 연구의 성격을 갖는다. 연구의 핵심 목적은 우리나라 특수교육 기본교육과정 개정에 따른 초등 음악 교과서 개발의 방향을 모색하는 데 있다. 2015 개정 특수교육 교육과정을 토대로 한 음악 교과서 개발의 방향은 크게 `역량중심`이라는 개념과 적용 대상의 특수성에 대한 이해를 토대로 한다고 볼 수 있다. 즉, 역량중심이라는 개정 교육과정의 성격과 적용 대상의 개인적, 정의적, 사회적, 학습적 특성 및 특별한 교육적 요구를 음악 교과를 통해 어떻게 구현할 것인가 하는 문제는 교과서 개발 주체에게 있어 매우 중요한 과제가 될 것이다. 최근 독일 바이에른 주에서 역시 `역량`이라는 개념을 토대로 교육과정을 개발하였는데 우리나라 기본교육과정 개발 방향과 차이를 보인다. 바이에른 주는 또한 우리나라와 달리 지적발달 영역 특수학교 음악과 교육과정을 가지고 있다. 이 또한 지적발달장애를 가진 학생들을 위한 음악과 교과서 개발 방향 연구에 시사점을 주리라 본다. The purpose of this study is to explore directions for the music textbook development of 2015 special education basic curriculum of Korea. This is based on a study on the music special education curriculum of German Bavarian State. Challenges of the music textbook development based on the special education basic curriculum are caused by special characteristics and needs of the target. A very important task of the music textbook developers is to reflect the personal, affective, social and learning characteristics and needs of the target in the development of the music textbook. The music special education curriculum of German Bavarian State includes the revised general education curriculum(LehrplanPLUS) and special school curriculum. 2015 revised general education curriculum has many similarities with 2015 revised special education curriculum of Korea. The special school curriculum can be regarded as a curriculum that best reflects the special characteristics and needs of the students with special education needs. The results of the study on the special education curriculum of Bavarian State can contribute to explore directions of the music textbook development based on 2015 special education basic curriculum of Korea.

      • KCI등재후보

        십구외(十九畏)에 관한 고찰

        박필상,강옥화,이고훈,박신영,강석훈,이승호,최장기,채희성,권동렬,Park, Pil-Sang,Kang, Ok-Hwa,Lee, Go-Hoon,Park, Shin-Young,Kang, Suk-Hoon,Lee, Seung-Ho,Choi, Jang-Gi,Chae, Hee-Sung,Kwon, Dong-Yeul 대한한의학방제학회 2007 大韓韓醫學方劑學會誌 Vol.15 No.2

        Nineteen Medicaments of Mutual Antagonism currently belong to pharmaceutical incompatibility and some of them cannot be used in a same prescription: if they are used in a prescription, the treatment effect is rather reduced or toxic response may be produced. Therefore. inthisstudy, it was intended to look about how Nineteen Medicaments of Mutual Antagonism were defined through survey of literatures and to review the meaning and clinical potential. According to "Sinnongbonchogyeong," "Medicaments contain the substance that suppress toxins and the toxins may be removed with use of mutual restraint or mutual detoxication substances" and they have been used in terms of this concept. Since Tang and Song era, mutual restraint and mutual inhibition were confused and were difficult to be distinguished. In terms of pharmaceutical incompatibility, the original meaning of mutual restraint was deteriorated in "Sinnongbonchogyeong". That is. mutual restraint has been used as the concept of mutual inhibition or incompatibility. When various literatures were reviewed. it could be found that Nineteen Medicaments of Mutual Antagonism were firstly included in the phrases of songs and then in "seven emotion." It could be supposed that Nineteen Medicaments of Mutual Antagonism was created based on the clinical experiences of the author and the influence of doctors. Such supposition means indicates that the interactions among medicaments could effectively be applied and mutual restraint did not belong to pharmaceutical incompatibility. However. many doctors used mutual restraint and mutual inhibition in clinical practice with no distinguishment since Song era and. especially, it is supposed that. when medicaments were used with mixing. the pharmaceutical incompatibility of "Nineteen Medicaments of Mutual Antagonism" or "Eighteen Incompatible Medicaments" were emphasized and influenced on the efficacy of pharmaceutical preparations or acted as an obstacle in treating diseases. That is. an error was transferred: mutual restraint and mutual inhibition were not distinguished and were discretionally added or deleted through common people or professionals with no specific verification. The pharmaceutical preparations that belong to Nineteen Medicaments of Mutual Antagonism belong to pharmaceutical incompatibility but. when reviewed various literatures and clinical reports. they are not thought to be the ones that can never be used. Therefore. systematic literature review and experimental research should be performed.

      • KCI등재

        피휘(避諱)에 관한 연구

        박필상,강옥화,이고훈,박신영,성만준,권동렬,Park, Pil-Sang,Kang, Ok-Hwa,Lee, Go-Hoon,Park, Shin-Young,Seong, Man-Jun,Kwon, Dong-Yeul 대한한의학방제학회 2007 大韓韓醫學方劑學會誌 Vol.15 No.1

        Characters are the tool of writing language. In particular, Chinese characters were the tool of communicating, storing and intermediating information in Chinese traditional medicine, and exercised great influence on diseases, diagnoses, treatments and others. Stupid Words are used to avoid calling the name of an emperor or an elder. The Stupid Words, written in old literature, were mostly used to avoid calling the name of emperors in those days. At first, those were used to express respect, but with time, the rule began to be strict. Those who violate the rule were dismissed or expelled; what is worse, even their families were exterminated. Medical books were no exception to the rule. The history of Stupid Words is originated from primitive society. Those were begun to be used customarily, and were institutionalized over time. Although dynasties had been changed in large numbers in history, Stupid Words were not disappeared and had been used until feudalism rings down the curtain. In addition, the characteristics of Stupid Words became different as to each age, and exercised great influence on old literature. The Stupid Words in Chinese traditional medicine are shown in herbal names, authors' names, terminologies, symptomatological names and others. Through Stupid Words, the date of publication can be presumed, and pleonasms can be discriminated from lacunae, and it can be judged whether those works are true or not. On the other hand, those cause inconvenience philologically. The Stupid Words in old medical books became different semantically throughout the years, and so the original became difficult to be translated as well as its meaning cannot be communicated correctly. Eventually, time and effort are expended unnecessarily in some cases.

      • KCI등재후보

        십팔반(十八反) 에 관한 연구

        박필상,강옥화,이고훈,이계석,신동원,권동렬,Park, Pil-Sang,Kang, Ok-Hwa,Lee, Go-Hoon,Lee, Kye-Suk,Shin, Dong-Won,Kwon, Dong-Yeul 대한한의학방제학회 2006 大韓韓醫學方劑學會誌 Vol.14 No.2

        ElM (Eighteen Incompatible Medicaments) is an important component in Oriental pharmacology and is directly related to clinical prescriptions. Medical practitioners argued that the definite cause and meaning of ElM was ambiguous and therefore debated the issue of clinical application of the ElM. This study conducted an in-depth literary research on the origin, meaning and contents of ElM with the purpose to contribute in its efforts to be used clinically. Even after thousands of years have past since establishment of Oriental medicine. ElM is still tabooed and was an obstacle that hindered ideologies. Modern herbal medicine texts claim that the use of ElM can reduce treatment effects and promote poisoning and side effects. However, since long ago, there has been medical practitioners who reject this as false. Recently, poisoning caused by ElM has been claimed to be from the toxicity of the drug itself, rather than the result of interaction between the drugs. and therefore they suggest that ElM is not a forbidden domain. In addition. ElM showed a difference in number depending on the era. However, this can be understood not as a definite number. but instead as a warning to be careful during combination of drugs for use as clinical medicine. Historically. there were very few cases in which ElM was used for clinical tests and thus, the clinical value is not yet clear. However. some medical practitioners clinically applied it and found clear results for it. while others applied ElM directly to their bodies. which showed signs for the usefulness and potential of ElM for us. A more concrete and in-depth study must be made on ELM.

      • KCI등재후보

        혼백(魂魄)의 관계에 대한 문헌적 고찰(考察)

        강석훈,이진호,강옥화,권동렬,Kang, Suk-Hoon,Lee, Jin-Ho,Kang, Ok-Hwa,Kwon, Dong-Yeul 대한한의학방제학회 2012 大韓韓醫學方劑學會誌 Vol.20 No.1

        Objectives : Ethereal soul and Corporeal soul are very important part of mental activities that have researched and studied not only by ancient medical scientists but also by philosophers and thinkers in historical literature. Methods : There are some differences between ethereal soul and corporeal soul in terms of meaning, generative process, organs and the effects over the human body although they have been studied for a long time and have influenced on each other. Results : The perception of ethereal soul and corporeal soul are considerably limited in Korean medicine compared to their contribution of biological activities. The relationship of the positive and negative, yin and yang, is not even classified. So there is a general lack of understanding of ethereal soul and corporeal soul in oriental medicine course. Conclusions : Therefore, this thesis is designed for discussing the origin and relation of ethereal soul and corporeal soul. Also it would be explained the effect in terms of sleeping that is related Ethereal soul and Corporeal soul.

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