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Solid phase extraction (SPE) purification method is the efficient and well-known tool for automated [11C]acetate synthesis. A fully automated homemade module adopting the SPE method and ‘pinch' valves was developed very economically with a universal interface board, a relay card and an open source programmable logic controller. The radiochemical yield of the optimized [11C]acetate synthesis by this system was 58.8 ± 2.1% (n=10, decay-corrected) from 15.5 ± 0.19 GBq of [11C]CO2 as starting activity, and total synthetic time was 15 minutes. HPLC analysis showed its high radiochemical purity as 97.4 ± 1.1% without possible by-products. J Radiopharm Mol Probes 2(2):103-107, 2016
Traditionally, mankind has made use of the oceans in several forms. Because ocean pollution has significant effects on many ocean uses, it seems reasonable to classify ocean uses into two categories; waste disposal and all other uses which are usually called amenity uses. These two uses are competitive. Historically, the oceans have been ruled by the principle of freedom of the high seas. So, the oceans have been common property resources, which tend to be over-used and polluted by everybody. Therefore, competitive uses impose external diseconomies on each other. Since World War II, population growth and improvement in the standard of living have brought about the increase of demands for the marine resources, as a result the prices of them have increased rapidly. At the same time, advance in technologies has fallen the cost of coastal nations for enclosure of broader ocean area. Old common property structure which had ruled the ocean used has poorly attuned to new market opportunities. Ownership rights structure tends to change when the value of better defined property rights exceeds the cost of bringing them about. After 1945, there was establishment of property rights to the oceans by coastal nations. Many of these actions have been motivated more by distributional self-interest than by attempts to internalize the external effects and secure efficient use of marine resources. In 1967, the opposition to further enclosure by the coastal nations began to mount. Many counties favored the establishment of an equitable international jurisdiction over the marine resources. In the case of marine environmental resources, economic analyses of the consequences of the enclosure movement versus international jurisdiction process by the UNCLOS(U.N. Conference on the Law of the Sea) strongly suggest that the enclosure movement will secure efficient use of them. I think so. But I think the most efficient property structure to the marine environmental resource is enclosure by the coastal nations together with international payment network in order to be compensated by offender. I think therefore that for the efficient control of marine pollution there should be international cooperation to create payment network. To do this each nation should encourage herself both from adopting extreme positions for negotiating purposes and over-estimating the cost of environmental damage and pollution control costs. That will reduce transactions cost and ease international cooperation. Then, efficient use of marine environmental resource is attained, that is to say, ocean pollution will be reduced to the optimal level.
"본 논문은 대한내과학회지 2006년 제70권 제3호에 실렸던 논문으로 대한내과학회 편집위원회의 승인을 득하고 본 협회지에 게재함. Background : Diabetes mellitus is a major independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. In recent years non-invasive high resolution B-mode ultrasound methods have been developed to measure the intima-media thickness(IMT) of the carotid artery as an indicator for early atherosclerosis. Itis known that obesity plays a role in the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and it has also been reported that not only the amount but also the distribution of body fat is important. This study investigated the relationship between obesity and the development of carotid atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: Carotid IMT was measured by ultrasound B-mode imaging in 144 patients with type 2diabetes mellitus. All subjects underwent assessment for the degree and distribution of obesity, the presence of coronary artery disease risk factors, and the presence of diabetic complications. Resuts: Carotid IMT was increased in the abdominal obese group defined by waist circurference. However, there was no significant difference in carotid TMT between the non-obese group and obese group as defined by body mass index, waist to hip ratio, and total body fat percent measured by bio electrical impedance analysis. There were positive correlations between carotid IMT and age, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, and waist circumference. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed the variable that interacted independently with carotid IMT was age in type 2 diabetic patients. Carotid IMT was significantly increased in type 2 diabetic patients with macrovascular complications and microvascvlar complications .Conclusion: This study suggested that abdominal obesity rather than general obesity was associated with carotid atherosclerosis reflected by increment of carotid IMT in type 2 diabetic subjects.