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Screening the Antibacterial Activities of Streptomyces Extracts against Phytopathogens Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae, Xanthomonas campestris pathovar vesicatoria, and Pectobacterium carotovorum pathovar carotovorum
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), X. campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv), and Pectobacterium carotovorum pv. carotovorum (Pcc) are the causative agents of bacterial blight in rice, bacterial spot in pepper, and bacterial soft rot in carrot and cabbage, respectively. To isolate novel microbial extracts with antimicrobial activities against these bacteria, approximately 5,300 different Streptomyces extracts were prepared and tested. Microbial cultures from various Streptomyces strains isolated from the Jeju Island, Baekam, Mankyoung river, Jiri mountain etc. in Korea were extracted into three different factions -secreted hydrophobic, secreted hydrophilic, and mycelia- using ethyl acetate, water, and methanol. Initially, 34, 29, and 10 extracts were selected as having antibacterial activities against Xoo, Xcv, and Pcc, respectively. Extracts 1169G4, 1172E9, and 1172E10 had the highest growth inhibition activities against both Xoo and Xcv, and extracts 1151H7 and 1152H7 showed the highest growth inhibition activities against Pcc.
Background: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a tumorigenic role related to advanced staging and poor prognosis in many human cancers including thyroid cancers. Yet, a functional role of TAMs in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has not been established. The aim of this study was to investigate TAM expression in human PTC with lymph node (LN) metastasis. Methods: Thirty-six patients who underwent surgery after being diagnosed with PTC with LN metastasis were included. Primary tumor tissues were immunohistochemically stained with an anti-CD68 antibody and clinical characteristics according to TAM density were evaluated. Results: The TAM densities (CD68+ cells) varied from 5% to 70%, in all tumor areas, while few cells were stained in adjacent normal tissues. TAMs were identified as CD68+ cells with thin, elongated cytoplasmic extensions that formed a canopy structure over tumor cells. Comparing clinicopathologic characteristics between tumors with low (<25%) and high (25% to 70%) TAM densities, primary tumors were larger in the high density group than in the low density group (2.0±0.1 vs. 1.5±0.1; P=0.009). Conclusion: TAMs were identified in primary PTC tumors with LN metastasis and higher TAM densities were related to larger tumor sizes, suggesting a tumorigenic role of TAMs in human PTCs.