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In various efforts to assure safety and serviceability of a bridge structure throughout its lifetime, it is essential to accurately estimate the traffic load effects. Although traffic loads involve large uncertainties and can vary significantly with site-specific traffic environments, bridge design codes and maintenance strategies do not utilize a probabilistic model that can reflect the actual environments and uncertainties of the target bridge. Rapid developments of weigh-in-motion (WIM) technologies now make it possible to collect various types of data describing the characteristics of vehicles and traffic patterns. Based on actual WIM data collected in South Korea, this paper develops a comprehensive probabilistic model describing the characteristics of vehicles and traffic flow so that the traffic load effects of a target bridge can be assessed using a Monte Carlo simulation approach. To describe the characteristics of vehicles and traffic flow in the WIM data, several important random variables are first identified. These key random variables are then incorporated into a comprehensive probabilistic model based on fitted probability distributions and theories of transportation engineering. The developed model is successfully verified by comparing the daily maximum total loads estimated using actual WIM data with those estimated using artificial WIM data generated from the model. Furthermore, bridge traffic load effects, e.g., moment and tension, are estimated using the influence lines of an actual cable-stayed bridge in South Korea (the Incheon Bridge) and are compared with those from the live load model of a design code. Finally, a brief parametric study is performed to explore the possibility that a probabilistic model developed by the proposed approach can be used as a generic probabilistic traffic load model capable of estimating the site-specific traffic loads through customizations based on partial measurements and available information regarding the target bridge.
This study examines the factors affecting 5G mobile communication market diffusion, especially focusing on the non-use intention of 5G based services. Consumer survey was conducted to gather data, and those are analyzed by using ordered logit model. Ultra High Definition (UHD) resolution, connected car, and Internet of Things (IoT) for home use are selected as a promising 5G services and are attributed as high speed, ultra low latency, and hyper-connection respectively. Our analysis result shows that lack of needs and high price are primary factors of non-use intention. While reliability issue is not significant in UHD, it is the most influential factor to connected car and IoT. Moreover, lower perception affects to non-use intention for each service. On the contrary, more experience in UHD and IoT affects to non-use intention.
An Act to give effect to the Convention on the Contract for the International carriage of Goods by Road signed at Geneva on 19th May 1956; it has applied contracts for the international Carriage of Goods by Road in Europe. A model legal regime on inter-American carriage of goods by road was adopted at the Sixth Inter-American Specialized conference on Private International Law(CIDIP-Ⅵ), held at the OAS. Therefore, there is no Convention in Asia like that of the CMR, but it is necessary to review the Act on Carriage of Goods by Road in Korea. On examination the liability of the carrier by road under CMR, HGB and Korean Commercial Law, there are different views on the basis of liability. On the other side, third-party logistics has developed rapidly, but we could not cope with this problem. According to the Korean Commercial Law, the carrier's liability is based on proof of fault, and that liability is limited to the value of goods fixed according to the place and time of delivery. So unlike that of CMR, HGB, that regulation is discretion, and has not application to the extra-contractual liability for loss, damage or delay. I propose that adopt a sum of money limitation of carrier's liability. And in case where the extra-contractual liability is in issue, the carrier avail himself of the provision fix or limit the compensation due. What kind of responsible is considered for the Carrier of Multimodal Transport of Goods or 3PL. There are network liability system and uniform liability system. I think, uniform liability system is more reasonable than network liability system.