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Delayed(Attritional) disruption of the Extensor Pollicis Longus tendon is not uncommon and is usually seen in older women following a colles' fracture. Acute traumatic disruption also is not an uncommon injury. Restoration of tendon continuity by segmental tendon graft would seem to be an ovious treatment and is mentioned in several textbook. In the one case reported in this article, the patient had blunt trauma on right wrist joint flexion during socker game and the rupture of Extensor Pollicis Longus tendon occured between three and four weeks after injury. So we restorated the Extensor Pollicis Longus tendon by segmental palmaris longus tendon graft and observed good result after one year. Our purpose in presenting this report is to show that the segmental palmaris longus tendon graft is simple and uniformly successful when applied to case of disruption of the Extensor Pollicis Longus.
Purpose: Congenital esophageal atresia (CES) is a rare congenital disease. The severity of symptoms is variable; thus, diagnosis is difficult and tends to be delayed. CES is frequently accompanied by esophageal atresia (EA) with/without tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF). We investigated the characteristics of CES by reviewing our experi-ence with CES patients and researched the differences between CES with EA-TEF and isolated CES. Methods: A total of 31 patients underwent operations for CES were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were div-ided into two groups according to the association with EA-TEF, and compared the differences. Results: Sixteen boys and 15 girls were included. The mean age at symptom onset was 8 months old, and the mean age at diagnosis was 21 months old. Nine patients with EA-TEF were included group A, whereas the other 22 patients were assigned to group B. There were no differences in sex, gestational age, associated anomalies and pathologic results between the groups. In group A, the age at diagnosis and age at surgery were younger than in group B despite the age at symptom occurrence being similar. Postoperative complications occurred only in group A. Conclusion: In this study, symptoms occurred during the weaning period, and vomiting was the most frequent symptom. CES patients with EA-TEF tended to be diagnosed and treated earlier despite the age at symptom occur-rence being similar. CES patients with EA-TEF had more postoperative complications; therefore, greater attention should be paid during the postoperative period.
A pseudo-tail is defined as a tail-like lesion in the lumbosacrococcygeal region that is not a true tail but one caused by disease. Perineal lipoma is one of the conditions that may present as a pseudo-tail. Congenital perineal lipoma is a rare disease and in particular, isolated congenital perineal lipoma without other anomalies is extremely rare. Here we report a case of congenital isolated perineal lipoma presenting as a pseudo-tail and also include a literature review of the condition
Purpose: This study was done to evaluate the effect and retention of CPR training in nursing students. Methods: The participants were 64 nursing students enrolled in K University in Busan. Data were collected from April 3 to October 20, 2006 using a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the SPSS/PC 12.0 statistical program. Results: The first hypothesis, that knowledge (t=-17.865, p=0.000) and skill (t=-11.216, p= 0.000) scored directly following the teaching program would be higher than before the program, was supported. The second hypothesis, that knowledge (t=-8.325, p=0.171) and skill (t=-9.812, p=0.062) scored directly after the teaching program would be higher than two months later, was rejected. The third hypothesis, that knowledge (t=-9.162, p=0.010) and skill (t=-6.019, p=0.023) scored two months after the program would be higher than four months after the program, was supported. The last hypothesis, that knowledge (t=9.169, p=0.210) and skill (t=-5.012, p=0.319) scored four months after the program would be higher than six months after the program, was rejected. Conclusion: Overall retention of CPR training among nursing students, without reinforcement, decreases most significantly between two and four months following initial training. Accordingly CPR training should be repeated with the same clients every four months.
Purpose: With advance in diagnostic techniques and treatment modalities, it has been increasing that the patients with colorectal cancer experience another primary malignancies. Understanding the characteristics of multiple primary malignancies is important to establish an effective surveillance program for the early detection of second cancer. Methods: The database of 2,709 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer between 1985 and 2007 in Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital was analyzed retrospectively. Results: Out of 2,709 patients, 102 (3.76%) of them were found to have multiple malignancies. Among them, 37 patients had synchronous cancers and 65 patients had metachronous cancers. The most common site of multiple primary malignancies was the stomach, followed by kidney, thyroid and breast. Conclusions: In the patients with colorectal cancer, it should be considered to evaluate multiple primary malignancies, especially stomach, during the routine follow up. And the most frequent multiple primary cancer before colorectal cancer was also stomach cancer. Careful attention should be paid to the colorectal cancer in stomach cancer patients. Purpose: With advance in diagnostic techniques and treatment modalities, it has been increasing that the patients with colorectal cancer experience another primary malignancies. Understanding the characteristics of multiple primary malignancies is important to establish an effective surveillance program for the early detection of second cancer. Methods: The database of 2,709 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer between 1985 and 2007 in Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital was analyzed retrospectively. Results: Out of 2,709 patients, 102 (3.76%) of them were found to have multiple malignancies. Among them, 37 patients had synchronous cancers and 65 patients had metachronous cancers. The most common site of multiple primary malignancies was the stomach, followed by kidney, thyroid and breast. Conclusions: In the patients with colorectal cancer, it should be considered to evaluate multiple primary malignancies, especially stomach, during the routine follow up. And the most frequent multiple primary cancer before colorectal cancer was also stomach cancer. Careful attention should be paid to the colorectal cancer in stomach cancer patients.
In this paper, LC output filters are designed to reduce output harmonics and harmonic analysis are performed. Generally, multilevel inverters are used in high power application and operates with low switching frequency, which, in turn, generates large output harmonics. Output filters are used to reduce output harmonics. The design approach to reduce output harmonics of the 3level multilevel inverter is discussed and DSP(TMS320C31) is used for the digital control of the system. the design example is given. The designed system is verified by simulation and experiment. 본 논문은 단상 멀티레벨 인버터의 LC출력 필터 설계와 변조비에 따른 고조파 분석을 수행하였다. 일반적으로 고전력 응용에 적합한 멀티레벨 인버터는 낮은 스위칭 주파수하에서 구동되므로 출력단에 큰 고조파 성분을 포함하게 된다. 이를 감소시키기 위해 출력단에 필터를 삽입하는 방법이 효과적이다. 3레벨 NPC 멀티레벨 인버터의 출력단 고조파를 감소시키기 위한 필터 설계 방안을 검토하고, 디지털 제어 방식을 위해 DSP(TMS320C31)를 사용하였다. 또한 필터의 설계예시를 보였고, 설계된 시스템의 타당성을 시뮬레이션과 실험을 통해 입증하였다.
Many designers and students recognize the importance of design concepts. However, when designing, design concepts are not set correctly, and design concepts are often only used formally. As a result, design results that are not related to the concept of design are derived, and the design imitated is prevalent. Therefore, this study helps to understand design concept by grasping role and component of design concept. And, it aims to present concept model for visualization of design concept. The scope of the study was limited to the design visualization process, and the meaning of the design concept within the design process was examined. As a research method, Chapter 2 examines the current status of value-oriented design through the background of the times, and derives the premise that “design is the choice of value”. In chapter 3, we analyzed the concept of design concept and the precedent research of design process, and analyzed the current state of design practice and educational field. In addition, three elements, “Concept-Motive-Style,” which are found in the creative field, were derived. And the [CMS] model was derived by constructing the relationship between Concept, Motive, Style. In Chapter 5, the [CMS] model was applied to the design process of good design cases to prove its usefulness. And the usefulness was verified. In the design process, 'visualization of the concept' is a process that many students find difficult because it depends on the ambiguity of the concept itself and the subjectivity of the designer. The [CMS] model compensates for formal ambiguity while maintaining content openness. So it is meaningful in that it helps to understand the concept and makes it easier to visualize the concept. 많은 디자이너와 학생들이 디자인 콘셉트의 중요성을 인식하고 있지만, 디자인 프로세스를 진행할 때 콘셉트를명확하게 설정하지 못하는 것은 물론, 콘셉트를 형식적으로만 사용하는 경우가 적지 않다. 이런 현상으로 인해콘셉트와 상이한 디자인 결과물의 도출이나 모방중심의 디자인이 만연한 실정이다. 따라서 본 연구는 콘셉트의의미와 역할, 그리고 콘셉트를 이루고 있는 구성요소를 파악함으로써 콘셉트에 대한 이해를 돕고, 디자인 개념의 시각화를 위한 콘셉트 모형을 제시하는데 목적이 있다. 연구범위는 디자인 콘셉트의 본질적 의미가 아닌 프로세스 상에서의 의미를 고찰하였고, 디자인의 조형적 측면인 ‘시각화 프로세스’로 한정하였다. 연구 방법으로는 2장에서 시대적 배경을 통해 가치중심의 디자인 현황을 살펴보고, ‘디자인은 가치의 선택’이라는 전제를 도출하였다. 3장에서는 디자인 콘셉트와 디자인 프로세스의 선행연구를 분석하고, 디자인 실무와 교육현장의 현황을 분석하였다. 그리고 창작분야에서 공통적으로 나타나는 ‘Concept-Motive-Style’의 세 가지 요소를 도출하였다. 4장에서는 이 요소들의 비교와 의미 재규정 및 관계구성을 통해 콘셉트 모형인 [CMS]모형을 도출하였다. 5장에서는 [CMS]모형으로 우수디자인 사례의 디자인 프로세스에 적용해 봄으로써 유용성을 검증하였다. 디자인 프로세스에서 ‘개념의 시각화 과정’은 콘셉트 자체의 모호성과 더불어 디자이너의 주관성에 의존하는 영역이므로 많은 학생들이 어려워하는 과정이다. [CMS]모형은 콘셉트의 내용적인 개방성은 유지하면서 형식적인 모호성을 보완하여, 콘셉트의 이해를 돕고 개념의 시각화를 쉽고 명확하게 했다는 점에서 의의가 있다.