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For the purpose of obtaining reference materials for the prevention and management of mental health promoting in industrial workers, this survey was investigated the relationship between subjective fatigue symptoms and its related factors such as demographic, job and health related variables. 442 cases of industral workers which occurred in 7 factories of machine and metal manufacturing indusrtries in Taejon industrial area surveyed by self-recorded questionnaire. The results were as follows: 1. In the complaint rates of fatigue, "eye strain" (21.9%) was the highest followed by "feel like lying" and "feel a pain in the low back" (12.4%), "feel drowsy" (12.2%), "yawning a lot"(11.8%) and "whole body feels tired" (11.1%) in the decending order. 2. In the average weighted scores of fatigue complaints, dullness and sleepness group( I ) was the highest, followed by difficulty in concentration group(II) and bodily projection of fatigue group(III) in the decending order. 3. The average weighted scores of fatigue complaints by general characteristics were significantly higher in the lower age group, lower education group and unmarried divorce group. But there was no difference in sex. 5. By the working condition, the fatigue scores were significantly higher in manual worker and shift worker than scores of clerical worker and day worker. 6. By the life style, the fatigue scores were forced to be significantly lower in 7-8 sleeping hour group and every day eating breakfast group than those scores of other groups. But everyday alcohol drinking group and the lower health practice indecies group were significantly higher than that of other groups. 7. By the health status and psychological factors, the fatigue scores were high scores in unhealthy group, unsatisfaction income level group, unsatisfaction worker contents group and the group of self-control in work was bad. 8. In the stepwised multiple regression, factors affecting the fatigue symptoms scores were depression symptom score, health status, marital status, job satisfaction, job repeatedness, body mass index.
The present experiments were conducted to obtain basic information on the selection of parent materials for crossing in rice breeding program during 1968~'69 and 1972. Varieties tested in this experiment were 8 Korean and Japanese varieties, respectively. The morphological traits and physiological activity of roots were observed in order to see the fundamental informations on them in rice varieties differing in their origin and also to find out the interrelationships among the characteristics of roots and aerial parts. Further experiment with 26 varieties and lines having different plant types was carried out to provide basic informations which could be applied to a rice breeding program to make selections for better regional adaptibility. The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. A highly significant positive correlation was found between the diameter of cross section and that of air-space in cortex of culm-base and also the diameter of root was positively correlated with the diameter of cross section of culmbase and with the number of parenchyma cells in cortex of root. 2. The diameter of root showed highly significant positive correlation with the number of vessels in metaxylem of root as well as with tension of root. It is considered that the Korean rice varieties have better conducting and Ventilating system between the top and the roots of rice plant as compared to the Japanese rice varieties. 3. The physiological root activity was positively correlated with the diameter of air-space in cortex of culm-base and with the number of parenchyma cells in cortex of root as well as with the number of vessels in metaxylem of root. Based on these facts, close relationship was clarified between physiological activity and histo-morphological characteristics of root. As compared with Japanese rice varieties, Korean varieties appeared to be higher in physiological activity of root in favor of thicker culm-base, larger air-space in cortex of culm, more number of parenchyma cells in cortex of root and more number of vessels in metaxylem of root. It may be concluded that Korean rice varieties have better adaptibility to less favorable conditions for rice growing especially where the AKIOCHI occurs than Japanese varieties. 4. Korean rice varieties involved in this experiment showed higher activity of upper and lower nodal roots before heading, but the activity was sharply decreased after heading. The root activity of Japanese varieties, however, was slowly decreased although it was lower than that of Korean varieties before heading. Therefore, the range of variation in root activity at different growth stages tended to be greater in Korean rice varieties than in Japanese. 5. Rice varieties with higher root activity before heading tended to have erect flag leaf, higher content of chlorophyll in flag leaf, and to show slower decomposition of the chlorophyll. It was also found that the variety with high root activity before and after heading had higher content of chlorophyll in leaf blades and was higher photosynthetic activity of the leaves. Significant varietal differences were observed in these characteristics. 6. The root activity before heading appeared to have no close relationship with Fe₂O₃or MnO content in the leaves. Antagonistic relationship, however, was found between the content of the 2 elements in the leaves. 7. Close relationship was recognized between the root activity after heading and the grain yield. It may be concluded that the root activity before heading does not affect the grain yield as much as the root activity at the later growth stage. Particularly, higher grain yield was obtained when the root activity index〔1/(range of variation in root activity/average root activity)x100〕was high. It is suggested that the rice variety could produce more grain yield when it has stable higher root activity in later growth stage. 8. A close relationship was found between the root activity and the rooting ratio at the seedling stage. 9. A highly significant positive correlation was found between the root activity and the number of green leaves at the later growth stage(heading to ripening stage). This indicates that the higher the root activity was the more the number of green leaves in later growth stage. 10. Above result was confirmed by the fact that removal of lower leaves resulted in the reduction of root activity. Therefore, it would be possible to diagnose indirectly the root activity by observing the number of green leaves of the rice plant in later growth stage when a breeder makes selections in the hybrid population.
This is research the origin, Kind, term of a kite was popular among the folks in january by the lunar calendar in Korea as men's outdoor merrymaking and the tools which used for making kites, producting method, the relations between wind and a kite, and the characteristics of it. In addition, this is to study the significance of flying a kite which has succeeded to the folks by preventing missfortune of a local faith, local customs, and playing game on a festive day and deciding the victory or defeat with power and to consider the plans of developing it for the recreation of a new culture.
As more emphasis is laid on English and the position of English more heightens entering the age of internationalization and globalization, accordingly there is increased interest in English education, and as recently policies of implementing English immersion education programs have been announced, it has become the actual state that interest in public English education is increasing more than any other time. Keeping pace with this increasing interest, teacher quality required for implementing English immersion education programs has become a rising subject of discussion, and voices for teacher cultivation and re-education are being heard everywhere. In order for public English-language education to be reinforced, first of all teacher professionalism should be enhanced, and in order to examine the professionalism, it is necessary to take a look at curricula in institutions for cultivating English teachers, and of those curricula, it is needed to consider curricula in graduate schools of education and also strategies employed in each graduate school of education for reinforcing public English education. Accordingly, this study examined the curriculum in each educational institution for teacher education, and conducted investigation and analysis through literature review and questionnaire surveys on the subjects and contents of articles, and ultimately laid its purpose on finding out strategies for qualitative improvement in curricular in graduate schools of education in the future. The following conclusions were reached through this study. First, as a result of examining differences in perceptions of graduate schools of education, there are differences in which functions should be carried out by graduate schools of education, according to occupations, teaching systems in schools, the presence and absence of a teacher license, with statistically significant differences (p<.001). Specifically in the case of actual teachers, the response of continuing education and re-education for enhancing teacher quality was 65.3% showing the relatively higher rate than in other occupations, and instructors indicated the specialization of educational functions for various education consumers as a needed function as 55.6%. There are different opinions on functions which should be carried out by graduate schools of education according to the study subjects. In addition, persons with a teacher license indicated continuing education and re-education as a function for enhancing the quality of current teachers as 62.8%, and persons without a teacher license indicated educating teachers as educational institutions as a function for cultivating teachers as 42.1%. Second, as a result of taking a look at satisfaction with the curriculum for English education, as subjects considered as possibly (certainly) being a help in actual educational settings, in the case of schools implementing teacher cultivation programs and persons with a teacher license, the area of English skills was mostly considered as helpful, while in the case of persons without a teacher license and schools implementing continuing education programs, the area of English education was mostly considered as helpful. On the other hand, as subjects possibly (certainly) not being a help, the area of English-American literature was mostly indicated, showing the result similar to the finding by Jeong Gyeong-ah (1995). Accordingly, we could understand that it is necessary to deal with English-American literature in a practical way and then link it to actual educational settings. In addition, it is one of desirable methods to deal with subjects of English subject education and English skills and also those should be linked to curricular for middle and high schools. Third, as a result of examining teaching methods for English education in graduate schools of education, the most generally employed teaching methods was lecturing (59.4%), while not showing big differences according to respondents' general characteristics. As the generally used teaching means, blackboards were indicated mostly (52.6%). The response of the blackboard showed more in the case of providing teacher cultivation programs rather than in the case of providing teacher continuing education programs, and in the case of the latter rather than the former, the use of other means was indicated more. In schools cultivating teachers, effective lecturing was practiced in order to help acquire a teacher license, while in schools giving re-education for such as teachers, other teaching methods rather than lecturing were more practiced. However, various methods fit to the research areas of professors and characteristics of subjects should be applied to class activities and various teaching methods should be sought, so that student-lead class activities could be designed and carried flexibly. Fourth, as a result of examining the development of English education, as what is needed to be improved most within the English curriculum, it is indicated by majority of respondents irrespective of groups that the development of the improved systematic English curriculum by study areas is required most. As what is needed for the development of English education, the development of English education programs was indicated, and what should be given priority for the development of English education is also to develop English education programs. Beside existing subjects, one should develop other application subjects required in actual educational settings, open related courses, and thereby reinforce teacher professionalism for vitalizing public English education. The quality of education depends on the quality of teachers, and good education presupposes the existence of quality teachers. Especially, in the education of foreign language such as English, the quality of teachers would be important more than anything. In light of this, Educating teacher can be said to be an important task in the development of education. In order for these teachers to improve professionalism, educational efforts should be given to the system of teacher education and the process of teacher cultivation in graduate schools of education, and also in order for English teacher education in these schools to be fit to English education according to policies of reinforcing public education, continuous efforts and countermeasures should be made. 국제화, 세계화 시대에 들어서면서 영어의 비중이 높아지고 영어의 위상이 높아짐에 따라 자연히 영어교육에 대한 관심도 증대되었으며 근래에는 몰입식 영어 교육의 시행에 대한 정책들이 발표되면서 그 어느 때보다 영어 공교육 강화에 대한 관심이 높아지고 있는 실정이다. 이러한 관심의 연장선에서 몰입식 영어교육 시행에 필수적으로 갖추어져야 할 교사자질 문제가 거론되며 교사양성, 교사 재교육에 관한 목소리가 곳곳에서 터져 나오고 있다. 영어 공교육이 강화되기 위해서는 우선 교사의 전문성이 무엇보다도 강화되어야 할 것이며 이러한 전문성을 살펴보기 위해서는 영어교사 양성기관의 교육과정을 살펴보는 것이 필요하며 그 중에서도 교육대학원의 교육과정에 대해 고찰해보고 각 교육대학원이 지니고 있는 공교육 강화 방안에 대해 살펴볼 필요가 있다. 따라서 본 연구는 교사교육을 위한 각 교육기관의 영어교육 교과과정을 살펴보고, 논문의 주제 및 내용을 문헌과 설문을 통해 조사, 분석 하였으며, 향후 교육대학원 교과과정의 질적인 향상을 이루기 위한 방안을 모색하고자 하는데 그 목적이 있다. 본 연구를 통하여 얻은 결론은 다음과 같다. 첫째, 교육대학원에 대한 인식차이를 살펴본 결과, 앞으로 교육대학원이 수행해야할 기능에 대한 차이로 직업, 학교 수업 체계, 교사 자격 증 취득 유무에 따라서 통계적으로 유의한 차이를 보였다. (p<.001) 교사의 경우 현직 교원의 자질 향상을 위한 계속 교육, 재교육이라는 응답이 65.3%로 나타나, 상대적으로 타 직업보다 더 높게 나타났으며, 강사는 다양한 교육 수요자를 위한 차별성 있는 교육 기능의 분화라는 응답이 55.6%로 높게 나타났다. 대상에 따라 교육대학원이 수행해야 할 기능에 대해 상반된 의견이 나타났다. 더불어 교사 자격증이 있는 경우 역시 현직 교원의 자질 향상을 위한 계속 교육, 재교육이라는 응답이 62.8%로 높게 나타났으며, 교사 자격증이 없는 경우 교원 양성기관으로서 예비 교사 교육이라는 응답이 42.1%로 높게 나타났다. 둘째, 영어 교육 교과과정에 대한 만족도에 대해 살펴본 결과 실제 교육현장에서 가장 도움이 될 것 같은(되는) 과목으로 교원 양성 교육을 실시하는 경우와 교사 자격증이 있는 경우는 영어 기능 분야가 가장 도움이 된다는 응답이 높게 나타난 반면, 교사 자격증이 없는 경우와 교원 계속 실시를 하는 학교인 경우 영어 교육 분야가 도움이 된다는 응답이 높게 나타났다. 반면 도움이 되지 않는(않을 것 같은) 과목으로는 영미 문학 분야라는 응답이 높게 나타났으며, 이는 정경아(1995)의 결과가 유사한 것으로 나타났다. 따라서 영미 문학과목을 실용성 있게 다뤄, 실제 교육 현장과 연관성 있게 반영하여 교육을 실시하는 것이 필요하다는 것을 알 수 있다. 또한 영어 교과 교육이나, 영어 기능에 대한 교과목을 체계적으로 다루는 것도 좋은 방법 중에 하나이며, 중, 고등학교의 교육 과정과 연관성 있게 진행되어야 할 것이다. 셋째, 교육대학원 영어 교육 교수 방법에 대해 살펴본 결과 일반적으로 주로 이용되는 교수법은 강의법이 59.4%로 가장 높게 나타났으며, 이는 응답자의 일반적 사항에 따라서 큰 차이를 보이지 않았다. 주로 활용하는 교수 매체로는 칠판이 52.6%로 가장 높게 나타났다. 이는 교원 양성 교육을 실시하는 경우 교수 매체로 칠판이라는 응답이 교원 계속 실시하는 경우보다 더 높게 나타났으며, 교원 계속 실시하는 경우는 기타 매체를 이용한다는 응답이 상대적으로 교원 양성 교육을 실시하는 경우보다 더 높게 나타났다. 교원을 양성하기 위한 경우는 교사 자격증 취득을 위해 효율적인 강의법을 주로 실시하는 것으로 나타났지만, 현재 교사 등의 재교육을 실시하는 교원 계속 실시의 경우는 강의법 외의 다른 교수법을 실시하는 정도가 더 높은 것으로 나타났다. 하지만 교수의 연구 분야와 교과과목의 특성에 맞는 다양한 방법으로 수업이 진행하고, 다양한 교수방법을 모색하여 융통성 있는 학생 주체 수업을 운영하는 것이 앞으로는 더더욱 강구되어야 할 것이다. 넷째, 영어 교육 발전에 대해 살펴본 결과 영어 교육과정 중 가장 필요한 개선점으로 분야별로 향상된 체계적인 영어 교육 과정을 개발하는 것이 가장 필요한 개선점으로 나타났으며, 이는 집단에 큰 관계없이 과반수이상 응답한 것으로 나타났다. 영어 교육 발전을 위해 가장 필요한 것으로 영어 교육 프로그램 개발이 가장 필요한 점으로 나타났으며, 영어 교육 발전을 위해 가장 우선시 되어야 하는 것은 영어 교육 프로그램을 개발하는 것이 가장 급선무이다. 기존의 교과과정 외에 실제 교육 현장에서 필요시 되는 다른 응용과목들을 개발하고, 이를 개설하여 영어 공교육 활성화를 위해 교사의 전문성 강화해야 할 것이다. 교사의 질적 수준은 교육의 질을 좌우하며 좋은 교육이란 훌륭한 교사가 존재해야만 이루어질 수 있다. 특히 영어와 같은 외국어 교육에 있어서 교사의 자질이란 무엇보다 중요할 것이다. 이러한 점을 고려할 때 교사교육의 문제는 교육발전에 있어서 중요한 과제라고 할 수 있다. 이러한 교사의 전문성 향상을 위해서는 교사교육의 체계와 교사 양성과정에 대한 지속적인 교육이 필요하며, 이러한 교육을 실시하고 있는 교육대학원의 영어교사교육들이 공교육 강화 방안에 따른 영어교육에 적합할 수 있도록 지속적인 노력과 대응책을 마련해야 할 것이다.