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Anodizing to form oxide layers on the pure titanium was performed in the electrolyte containing 1.5M H₂SO₄, 0.2M H₃PO₄, and 2.5 wt.% CuSO₄ using the ac-biased arc anodizing technique. Titanium oxide layers anodized with different applied voltages, voltage-elevating rates, and anodizing times were investigated. In addition, thermal oxidation test under an atmospheric environment for the arc-anodized specimens was carried out. The thickness of oxide layers were not affected by the voltage-elevating rates, but increased slightly with the increase of anodizing times. The thickness of oxide layers were increased with the increase of voltages, and increased remarkably in the condition of 200 V. The size and number of the pore observed in the center of the porous cell were decreased with increase of applied voltage. From the result of thermal oxidation test, it revealed that oxide layer formed by arc anodizing more effective to prevent oxidation of pure titanium.
유해 남조류를 친환경적으로 제어하기 위해 개발된 생물유래 물질인 naphthoquinone (NQ) 유도체의 현장 적용 가능성을 확인하고자 하였다. 기흥 저수지 수변에 30 ton 규모의 mesocosm을 설치하여 현장 조건에서의 살조효과와 비생물학적, 생물학적 요인을 모니터링하였다. NQ 2-0 물질을 처리한 결과, 대조구에서는 대상 조류인 Microcystis sp.의 세포밀도가 지속적으로 증가한 반면, 처리구에서는 실험 초기 7.9×10⁴ cells mL<SUP>-1</SUP>에서 접종 후 점진적으로 세포수가 감소하여 10일차 9.7×10² cells mL<SUP>-1</SUP>으로 대조구 대비 99.4% 감소하였다. 실험 종료시인 15일차에는 Microcystis sp. 세포수가 100% 제거되었다. 대상 조류인 Microcystis sp. 종만을 선택적으로 제어하였을 뿐만 아니라, 다른 식물플랑크톤의 성장과 식물플랑크톤 종 다양성 지수도 증진되었다. 또한, 식물플랑크톤을 제외하고 NQ 2-0 물질에 의하여 물리․ 화학적요인 (수온, 용존 산소, pH, 전기전도도, 영양염)과 생물요인 (박테리아, HNFs, 섬모충, 동물플랑크톤)에 영향을 미치지 않았으며, 대조구와 처리구에서 유사한 경향이 관찰되었다. We evaluated the field application feasibility that biologically derived substances (Naphthoquinone derivate: NQ 2-0) can be used for the eco-friendly mitigation of natural harmful cyanobacterial blooms in freshwater. We conducted a 30 ton scale mesocosm experiment to investigate the effects of NQ 2-0 on biotic and abiotic factors in water collected from Gi-heung reservoir. In the mesocosm experiments, the abundance of Microcystis sp. was continuously increased in the control. However, the Microcystis sp. cell density was sharply decreased on the 10<SUP>th</SUP> day. In the treatment, NQ 2-0 showed the strong and selective algicidal activity toward the target cyanobacteria (Microcystis sp.). Accordingly, the algicidal activity of NQ 2-0 compound increased gradually until 10<SUP>th</SUP>, 15<SUP>th</SUP> days and algal biomass was decreased to 99.4 and 100 %, respectively. NQ 2-0 compound was not only selective algicidal activity but also the growth of other phytoplankton and increased the Shannon-Wiener diversity index of phytoplankton. In the mesocosm experiments, the dynamics of biotic (bacteria, heterotrophic nanoflagellate, ciliates, zooplankton) and abiotic (water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, nutrients) factors remained unaffected. These results suggest that NQ 2-0 could be a selective and ecologically safe algicide to mitigate harmful cyanobacterial blooms. In addition, it is believed that NQ 2-0 will play a major role in forming a healthy aquatic ecosystem by facilitating habitat and food supply of aquatic organisms.
The microstructure and mechanical characteristics of sintered materials composed oi Fe-xwt.%P with mixing times had been studied. The Fe+xwt.%P(x = 0.25, 0.5, 0.75,1) powders were sintered for 2 hours at 940°C. Before sintering of the powders, each of powder composition was worked into ball-mill machine for 12, 24, and 48 hours. The shrinkage of preform increased with phosphorus amount and mixing time during sintering. Pores and Fe<sub>3</sub>P facet type phase in the grain boundary and grain of sintered materials were observed by means of scanning electron microscope. Amounts of pores and the size of Fe<sub>3</sub>P phase decreased with increase of the mixing time. The hardness of sintered materials depended upon the content of phosphorus and the mixing time of powder. The hardness increased with the increase of phosphorus content and mixing times.