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Ji-u-jae (之又齋) Jeong Su-yeong (鄭遂榮) was a literati painter, active, during the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1909) from the late 18th to early 19th century. His ancestral home was Hadong (河東), and he used Su-dae (遂大) as his childhood name, Gun-bang (君芳) as his Ja (字), and Ji-u-jae (之又齋) as his pen name (號). Jeong Su-yeong began to gain attention his "Album Leaves of Sea and Mountain (海山帖)"was introduced by Choe Sun-wu (崔淳雨) in 1976. Furthermore, his life and family lineage were discovered by Lee Tae-ho (李泰浩) in 1984. Since then, He has been discussed as one of the important painters in the late Joseon dynasty in studies of "true-view landscape painting (眞景山水)" and literati painting, etc. However, attention has mainly been given to limited number of his most representative works and "true-view landscape painting". Thus, his friendship apart from his family lineage, or general painting style has rarely been researched. This paper, firstly, will study his rarely known life taking former research into consideration. Then, it will examine his painting subjects, the origin of its style, and distinctive features in general, focusing on landscape paintings still extant. Jeong Su-yeong was from 'The School of Practical Learning (實學)' of the Southerners (南人). Hence, he spent much of his lifetime making maps and working within family tradition compiling the genealogy for example. On the other hand, he studied poetry, calligraphy, and painting, and travelled widely. He, like his ancestors. mainly made friends with the Southerners, such as, Yeoju Yi clan (驪州李氏), Jinju Gang Clan (晋州姜氏), Dongbok O clan (同福吳氏), and Pungcheon Yim clan (豊川任氏). His experience in making maps is dearly connected with the fine brush works in his landscape paintings, the careful maimer and the broad point of view in his true-view landscape paintings, and the fact that he always indicated the place names on his paintings. Jeong entered the painting circle practising and copying Chinese painting manuals, such as "Splendid Scenery nationwide (海內寄觀)", "Paintings of Three Entities (三才圖會)", and "Paintings of Famous Mountains (名山圖)" as well as "Tang Poetry Painting Manual (唐詩畵譜)", "Mr. Ku Painting Manual (顧氏畵譜)", and "Mustard Seed Garden Painting Manual (芥子園畵傳)". Among them, the Ming woodblock print, "Paintings of Famous Mountains", was introduced in Joseon during the early 18th century, and was studied at first by Jeong Seon (鄭敾), Gim Hong-do (金弘道) and Jeong Su-yeong in the late 18th century, and later Han Yong-gan (韓用幹) and other Joseon scholars and painters through the 19th century. Moreover, Jeong was deeply interested in the Chinese Southern School painters (南宗畵家), such as, four Yuan masters (元四大家) and Ming's Wu School (明代吳派). Jeong's paintings can largely be divided into the fixed forms of paintings (定型山水), like Southern School style, and true-view landscape paintings (眞景山水). Both styles, however, had been developed in his paintings interweavedly since his 50's. His fixed forms of painting style, taking scholarly leisure culture as its background, is based on the Southern school style widely spread among contemporary painters. However, he was consistent to use a cursive brush with a stubby brush or a light ink, rather than systematic brush works. Furthermore, he evoked a unique atmosphere with his usage of light colors. The characteristic outline, which is thinly continued ill the expression of mountains and rocks, became a main element of Jeong's landscape painting. Jeong's true-view landscape painting, divided into paintings of Han liver (漢江) and Yim-jin river (臨津江), and Geumgang mountain (金剛山), shows relatively an adventurous features ill the following ways : the positiveness in directly sketching or completing the scenes on the spot, the way he drastically controlled its size according to object, the frankness which he reflected his own feeling, the attitude of using Korean place name in the vernacular on plane and geometric scenes or a title
겸재 정선(謙齋 鄭敾, 1676-1759)은 18세기 화단에 뚜렷한 자취를 남긴 문인화가로서 다양한 소재를 소화하였다. 그는 70대 이후 말년까지 화필(畵筆)을 놓지 않았으며, 때때로 아들과 제자에게 대필(代筆)을 시키기도 했다. 생존 당시부터 명성이 높았던 정선의 화풍은 그의 사후(死後), 20세기 초까지 조선 화단에 큰 영향을 미쳤다. 그 과정에서 정선 그림의 모방작과 복제작이 만들어졌고, 서명과 인장을 위조한 작품들이 섞인 채 유통되었다. 그와 같은 현상은 조선이 근대화를 향한 대장정에 뛰어들었던 19세기 후반-20세기 초 미술시장에서 한층 노골화되었다. 현재 영국도서관에는 당시 조선에 체류했던 서양인들이 수집한 2점의《겸재화첩》이 소장되어 있다. 각각 조선 정부의 근대화 정책에 관여했던 영국인 알프레드 스트리플링과 미국인 호머 헐버트가 수집하였고, 20세기초 영국도서관이 구입한 유물이다. 두 점 모두 ‘겸재화첩’이라는 표제가 있고 일부 그림의 제재와 화풍이 정선과 연관되지만, 세부 표현의 특징과 회화적 완성도는 정선과 거리가 있는 위작(僞作)이다. 고동서화의 수요와 공급, 유통 시스템이 재편되어 가던 전환기에 제작, 유통되었던 것이다. 이와 같은 정선의 전칭화첩(傳稱畵帖)은 개화기 조선 서화의 모방과 복제, 유통의 일 단면을 엿보는 데 유용한 회화 사료이다. Scholar-artist Gyeomjae Jeong Seon (1676-1759) left a strong impression on 18th-century art, mastering diverse genres including landscape (山水), people and incidents from the past (故事人物), and birds, beasts and plants (翎毛花卉). Jeong kept painting in his 70s and beyond, and is said to have sometimes had his son or disciples paint for him. He was famous during his lifetime, and his painting style remained highly influential among younger artists after his death. This led to the production of imitations and copies of Jeong’s work; some, featuring counterfeit signatures and seals, have been sold as authentic works. Such phenomena became even more conspicuous on the art market of the late-19th to early-20th century, when Joseon began its rush towards modernization. The collection of the British Library currently includes two albums titled Gyeomjae hwacheop (謙齋畵帖; “Album of Paintings by Jeong Seon”). These were collected by Alfred Burt Stripling, an Englishman involved in shaping the modernization policies of the Joseon government, and by American Homer Bezaleel Hulbert, respectively, and acquired by the British Library in the early 20th century. Though both albums are titled Gyeomjae hwacheop, and some of their paintings contain themes and styles related to those of Jeong, they are fakes that show differences to Jeong’s work in terms of their characteristics and level of skill. They appear to have been produced and sold in a period when the demand, supply and distribution system for antique calligraphy and paintings, which had acquired new monetary value, was changing. These generic Jeong Seon painting albums can be seen as material evidence and art‒historical data offering a glimpse of the imitation, copying and distribution of calligraphy and paintings during Joseon’s modernization period.
웹 기반 독서토론 학습은 웹이라는 가상의 공간에서 독서토론에 참여한 학습자간의 의견 교환을 통해 도서의 내용이해와 사고의 확장을 도모할 수 있는 교수 방법으로 토론의 장소를 웹이라는 새로운 공간에 적용한 수업형태이다. 웹 기반 토론 학습은 다른 사람의 의견을 존중하는 태도와 합리적인 사고와 의사표현 능력이 성패를 좌우할 수 있으므로 학습자들의 활발한 상호작용이 가능하도록 학습 환경을 제공해 주는 것이 필요하다. 이에 본 연구에서는 위키 프로그램을 적용하여 보다 나은 학습자간의 상호작용을 위한 웹 기반 독서토론시스템을 개발하고 유용성을 검증해 보았다. 이를 통해 기존의 댓글 방식의 수직적인 토론이 아닌 다차원적인 토론이 가능하게 될 것이다. Reading discussion system based on a Web is a new teaching method which employs a Web as a space for discussion. It enables learners to exchange their opinions to enhance understanding and expand thinking. It is highly required to promote attitude of respecting other's opinions, reasonable thinking, and ability to express thinking in discussion learning based on a Web for interaction. In this study, I developed a reading discussion system, applying the Wiki program, for learners' interaction and tested its usefulness. Through this, it will be possible not to have existing vertical discussion which makes replies on a Web board but to have multidimensional discussion.
This study examined the condition of an educational discourse, relating the concept of creativity, culture, culture-centered, and critical thinking, to explore Culture-based Art Education(CBAE). In particular, art education practice was examined using interpretations of creativity and critical theory positions from the field of education. Discourse analysis was used as the research method to contextually situate and analyze the ways in which art education theory and practice of creativity and of critical studies encoded meanings. The study helped build an understanding that creativity was formed as a modernist discourse in the humanistic stance. In education, creativity became the fundamental concern for progressive educators who pursued innate ability of individuals. The way to enhance creative potential of students was to induce their motive, as was the same case in art education, while in artist training, free expression was its main method. In this way, as creativity was intimately connected with the concept of expression, in art education art making is the only course for enhancing creativity. However, because creative process cannot intelligently be regarded as logically distinct from the creative product, and creativity can only be said by product, it seems valid to think that creativity is the quality not to be achieved by teaching. Furthermore, its emphasis on art making resulted in unbalance of art making and art appreciation in art education. It was the late sixties when several alternatives for creative education were made their appearance. Critical studies in art adopted critical theory as its theoretical background has developed as an alternative of creative art education, when research and theory for creativity could not be adequate to deal with the problem of practice. Critical theory is a broad and diverse field of theory and practice drawing on aspects of the modernist perspective of the later Frankfurt School, feminism, Freirean pedagogy, postcolonial discourse as well as postmodernism to construct a practical approach to education. It is very this eclectic nature to provide the mosaic that need to experience cultures from different perspectives in a pluralistic society. Because one's personality is formed by multiple aspects of culture which is very complex and is made up of what we do and value, creativity cannot make part of educational discourse with the philosophy of culture centered. On the other hand, critical studies, as a school art program of critical theory, can perform the role of CBAE, because it would have to deal with the investigation of social and cultural issues form multiple personal, local, national, and global perspectives.
Astrocyte has emerged as an active regulator of brain function, which connects between blood vessels and neurons as well as is a structural component of the blood-brain barrier, From its structural characteristics, astrocyte seems to sensitively respond to oxygen tension, and, in turn, generate diverse cellular cascades. Therefore, to reveal astrocytlc events by oxygen change, we screened genes whose expressions are upregulated under reoxygenation after hypoxic stress using cDNA representational difference analysis (RDA) technique. Meteorin that regulates glial differentiation was isolated from primary cultured rat astrocytes as a hypoxia/reoxygenation regulatory factor. We cloned rat version of Meteorin (rMe-teorin) and determined full-size sequences of rMeteorin. In addition, RT-PCR analysis revealed that Meteorin was increased under reoxygenation in astrocytes and highly expressed in the developing brain. Collectively, these results suggest that Meteorin may regulate astrocyte-mediated effects in response to the change of oxygen tension in the pathophysiological states.
영국 런던대학교 소아즈 도서관에 소장되어 있는 《겸재화첩(謙齋畵帖)》은 총 10폭의 그림으로 구성되어 있다. 소아즈의 운영위원으로 오랜 기간 재직했던 프레드릭 앤더슨(Frederick Anderson, 1855~1940)의 기증품이며, 그가 19세기말~20세기초 10여 년간 중국 상해에 머물면서 수집한 것으로 추측된다. 이 화첩은 표제를 비롯해 관념적 제재와 실경적 제재를 취한 내용, 인장과 서명 등 여러 가지 면에서 조선 후기의 문인화가 겸재(謙齋) 정선(鄭敾, 1676~1759)과 연계된다. 또한 화면의 구도와 세부표현에서도 정선화풍(鄭敾畵風)을 연상시키는 요소들이 발견된다. 그러나 전형적인 정선화풍과 비교해 본 결과, 정선의 진작(眞作)이 아니라 모사본(模寫本)의 일종으로 판단된다. 즉 의도적으로 정선화풍을 차용해 그린 것은 분명하지만, 정선 특유의 화경(畵境)을 구현해 내지는 못하였다. 당시 세간에 전하는 정선의 작품을 참조해 임모(臨摹)하거나 모티프를 재조합하는 방식으로 화면을 구성하고 인장과 서명을 위조한 것이다. 그와 같은 양식적 특징과 회화적 완성도, 그리고 앤더슨의 행적을 종합할 때 《겸재화첩》은 개화기, 즉 19세기 후반~20세기 초반의 미술시장에서 만들어진 것으로 생각된다. 당시 서양세력의 동아시아 진출이 본격화되는 가운데 내방한 외국인들이 미술시장의 새로운 수요층으로 부상하였다. 그 기회에 폭넓은 수요층에게 인기를 끄는 유명화가의 복제본 제작이 크게 늘어났고, 조선 서화에 대한 전문지식이 부족했던 외국인들은 비교적 저렴한 가격의 모사본을 구입해 가는 경우가 있었던 셈이다. 요컨대 소아즈 도서관의 《겸재화첩》은 비록 정선의 진작은 아니지만, 시대를 뛰어넘는 정선의 영향력과 개화기 미술시장에 드리워진 명암(明暗)을 엿보게 해주는 자료로서 의미를 지닌다고 하겠다. Gyeomjae Hwacheop 謙齋畵帖 is an album with ten leaves of paintings, which is kept in the Special Collections section in the library at SOAS(School of Oriental and African Studies), University of London. It was donated by Frederick Anderson(1855~1940) who was on the governing body of SOAS for a long time. Most likely he acquired the album during his ten-year stay in Shanghai between the late 19th and early 20th century. The album is linked to the famous Joseon dynasty painter Jeong Seon鄭敾 (1676~1759, pen-name Gyeomjae謙齋) in that not only does it carry Gyeomjae’s name on the seal stamped on the album pages, the subject matters of several of the paintings are those typically associated with Gyeomjae. In addition, also the composition and painterly style of the album leaves are partly similar to that associated with Gyeomjae. However, when comparing the album with representative works by Gyeomjae, it becomes clear that this album was not painted by Gyeomjae himself. Rather, it was by a later painter, who failed to achieve the mastery of Gyeomjae’s painting skills, and instead re-arranged and re-composed Gyomjae’s original works. Taking into account it’s ownership by Anderson, not to mention the stylistic characteristics and artistic level of the album, it is believed that the album was made in the late 19th or early 20th century. This was a time when Westerners who came to East Asia emerged as new buyers on the arts market. During this period an increasing number of copies of paintings by well-known artists were being made, and often the cheaper copies were purchased by foreigners, who were unfamiliar with the original works. From this perspective, even though the album in the SOAS library is not an original work by Gyeomjae, it has value as an artefact that signifies the influence of Jeong Seon on later Korean painters. Moreover, it offers important insight into the arts market around the enlightenment period.
조선 후기의 문인 성해응(成海應)(1760~1839)은 방대한 학문적 업적뿐 아니라「서화잡지(書畵雜識)」를 비롯해 1백 편이 넘는 서화감평(書畵鑑評)기록을 남긴 인물이다. 그의 서화제발(書畵題跋)은 성해응 개인의 서화취미는 물론이고 18세기에 널리 확산된 서화고동의 수집 및 감상 열기를 진단해볼 수 있는 史料로서 큰 의미를 지닌다. 전체적으로 성해응의 서화 감상이 글씨에 치우쳐 있어 회화제발(繪畵題跋)은 30여 편에 불과하지만, 회화사적으로 가치 있는 내용이 적지 않게 포함되었다. 그는 주로 18세기에 제작된 조선의 회화를 감상했으나 중국과 일본의 그림을 접할 기회도 가졌다. 또한 정선(鄭敾)·이인상(李麟祥)·강세황(姜世晃)·김윤겸(金允謙)·정수영(鄭遂榮)등의 문인화가나 김홍도(金弘道)·이인문(李寅文)·최북(崔北)등 전문적인 직업화가의 그림들을 두루 감상하였다. 사군자류(四君子類)와 산수화(山水畵), 고사인물도(故事人物圖)의 비중이 상대적으로 높지만, 화조령모(花鳥翎毛)·어해초충(魚蟹草蟲)·풍속(風俗)등 여타의 장르도 폭넓게 섭렵하였다. 그가 접한 그림의 작가나 장르에 나타나는 특징은 성해응의 심미취향이 문인문화의 전통에 기대고 있음을 보여준다. 성해응의 회화감평은 작가와 작품에 대한 객관적 사실을 기록하는데 치중했고, 기존에 알려지지 않았던 새로운 정보는 18세기 화단을 복원하는 데 도움이 된다. 하지만 작가의 기질이나 생애가 회화세계에 미친 영향까지 구체적으로 논증한 것은 아니다. 그는 ‘완물상지(玩物喪志)’를 경계하는 문인 사회의 관습에 암묵적으로 동의하는 가운데 작품을 감상하고 평가하였다. 말예론(末藝論)을 내세우는 한편 그림이 도(道)를 실현하는 수단으로 쓰일 수 있다는 재도론적(載道論的)관점을 견지하고 있었고, 작가의 성품이 작품의 완성도를 좌우 한다고 생각하였다. 또한 눈에 보이는 형상 너머에 존재하는 ‘일취(逸趣)’ 혹은‘일격(逸格)’을 구현한 작품에 높은 점수를 줌으로써 보수적인 문인화론(文人畵論)을 개진했다. 요컨대 성해응의 회화감평 활동은 평생 동안 천착했던 정통 학문과 구별되는 일종의 ‘여기(餘技)’였다고 할 수 있다. Sung Hae-eung (成海應), 1760~1839), a noted literary scholar of the late Joseon Dynasty, bequeathed voluminous art criticism on painting and calligraphy, included in ‘Seohwajapzi (書畵雜識)’. His writings on the back of painting and calligraphy have significant meaning as historical data that reflect the author`s aesthetics and a contemporary social atmosphere for collection and appreciation of painting and calligraphy widespread during the 18th century. Inclining toward calligraphy, Sung left only 30 writings on the back of the paintings. Nevertheless they are valued for their art historical importance. Sung`s criticism was mainly focused on contemporary Joseon paintings but he also had opportunities to contact with painting from China and Japan. The paintings in his collection both by literary scholars such as Yi In-sang (李麟祥) and professional painters such as Kim Hong-do (金弘道) span a wide range of categories (e.g. Sagunja painting (四君子), landscape, painting of famous figures from ancient history as well as genre painting and animal painting etc). It means that the aesthetical taste of Sung Hae-eung was based on the tradition of literati painting. Sung`s writings on the works are focused on artist`s biography and his works, and they sometimes reveal new information not known until now. However, in his writing Sung does not attempt to illustrate a possible influence of artist`s life and his artistic disposition on art. While giving a tacit approval to the conservative custom of the literary establishment which requires eternal vigilance against ‘Wanmulsangji (玩物喪志)’, Sung insists on the ‘theory of trifle talent (末藝論)’. He maintains the viewpoint of ‘Jaedo-ron(載道論)’ whereby painting is viewed as a means to reach Tao (道) and claims that artists` character is one of the factors that determine the quality of the art work. Paintings believed to realize the ideological concept as ‘Ilchi (逸趣)’ and ‘Ilgyeok (逸格)’ that lie beyond visual representation, are valued in Sung`s criticism which adheres to the conservative theory of literati painting. In short, the essence of artistic creation and its expression are not explored in his criticism. Sung regards the activity of aesthetic appreciation and criticism as ‘Yeogi (餘技)’, different from orthodox learning to which he dedicated himself throughout his life.
이 글의 목적은 미술을 인지적 시각에서 규명하면서 가능한 교육과정의 범위를 확인하기 위한 것이다. 이를 위해 1960년대 이후 인지혁명에서 구체화된 인지 이론의 시각에서 미술제작의 성격을 파악한 다음, 들뢰즈와 과타리의 철학에서 인지의 성격을 좀 더 포괄적으로 이해하였다. 인간의 인지는 어느 사회적 배경에서 상징을 사용하면서 만들어지며 거기에는 수많은 다른 텍스트들이 유추, 추론 등의 활동이 뒤섞여지는 리좀적 성격을 가진 것으로 확인된다. 그것은 다질적인 성격을 가지며 또한 통일성이 부여되지도 않는 특성일 지니기 때문에 끊임없이 각기 다른 상황적인 지식을 만들어낸다. 이러한 인지적 성격은 미술제작과 감상에도 그대로 작용한다. 결과적으로 교육에서 해석, 즉 복수적 해석의 역할을 강조하게 된다. 해석의 교수·학습 방법은 여러 학문영역을 연결하여 포괄적인 지식을 얻게 하는 통합학문을 통해 가능한 것이다. 또한 복수적 해석은 차이의 가치를 배울 수 있는 문화교육과 연관된다. 마지막으로, 차이, 생성의 의미는 결국 교육과정이 중심화의 통일성을 기획하는 닫힌 개념이 아닌 교사의 자치권이 주어지는 열린 교육과정을 통해 가능한 것이다. The purpose of this paper is to identify and extend the possible scope of art curriculum by exploring artwork as cognition. For this, I have examined art making related to the new cognition theories which have gradually developed via the cognitive revolution since the 1960s in the USA. I then developed more comprehensive cognitive qualities by researching Deleuze and Guattari’s philosophy. In this paper, I have identified that human cognition occurs through the use of symbols in a certain sociocultural context as “rhizome”, in which diverse texts are integrated as a text through deductive and inductive cognitive actions. As such, this multi-faceted qualities of rhizome, which has no unified characteristics, produce contextural knowledge. Consequently, this cognitive characteristic emphasizes the roles of interpretation and multiple interpretation in education. Because interpretation means the transformation of meaning on the part of learners, teachers should prepare the pedagogy, which can be effective in expanding interpretation by the students who are the subject of the meaning making. It requires open curriculum in which teachers’ flexibility to determine the content and subject is given. In this curriculum the pedagogy naturally towards integrated or interdisciplinary studies because they relate diverse meanings to create more comprehensive knowledge in life. In this way, art education should eventually move towards cultural education because art is the expression of life, per se.
朱子性理學은 조선왕조를 떠받치는 통치철학이자 문인들의 사유체계와 삶의 양태를 지배하는 이념이었다. 16세기 이후 士林派 문인들이 부상하면서 학문적 이해가 심화되었고 朱熹에 대한 숭모열도 가속화되었다. 그 양태는 朱子書의 간행과 유포, 朱子祭享 공간의 증가, 九曲 경영과 朱子詩文의 애호, 그리고 表象과 志向으로 대별되는 주자 이미지의 시각화 등으로 요약된다. 주자의 표상적 이미지는 관련 서적의 揷圖와 聖賢圖像帖, 봉안용 肖像畵에 투영되었다. 정형화된 圖像을 기반으로 하되 제작 당시 조선 화단에서 유행한 초상화풍으로 변용하기도 했다. 또한 화면에 贊文을 부기함으로써 주자의 초상과 가르침을 동일시했음이 드러난다. 지향적 이미 지가 담긴 武夷九曲圖나 故事人物畵도 주자와 소통하는 매개체로 여기며 완상되었다. 요컨대 조선시대 주자 이미지는 시각자료를 통해 주자와 소통하고자 했던 조선 문인들의 열망 속에서 창출되고 활용되었던 것이다. Neo-Confucianism functioned as both the philosophical basis of government during the Choson dynasty and the ideology that dominated the thoughts and lives of the country``s ruling classes. The emergence of the Sarim faction of scholars in the 16th century brought deeper scholastic understanding of Neo-Confucianism and increasingly passionate veneration of Zhu Xi(1130~1200), the Southern Song scholar who synthesized its fundamental concepts. Many books explaining Zhu``s thoughts and his life were published and distributed, while an increasing number of dedicated spaces for performing sacrificial rites to him were added to Confucian academies and shrines. This was accompanied by a trend among literati nationwide of recreating the Nine-Bend Stream (jiuqu; the stream in China``s Wuyi Mountains by which Zhu lived and studied) and reading Zhu``s poetry and other writings. Particularly notable is the constant visualization of Zhu``s image, either through direct representation or aspirational emulation. Zhu Xi``s symbolic image was projected in the form of book illustrations, picture albums of saints, and portraits used in sacrificial rites or shrines. His appearance and attire were appropriated from those found in Chinese visual materials, and he was depicted in a variety of postures and styles. Portraits of Zhu in the style fashionable among Choson artists at the time also appeared. Among these were several works combining portraits with self-encomia, demonstrating that Choson literati understood portraits of Zhu as inseparable from his teaching. Paintings of the Nine-Bend Stream in the Wuyi Mountains of Fujian Province, China (wuyi jiuqu tu; mui gugok do), which can be regarded as emulative images of Zhu Xi, were generally painted with reference to icons found in Ming and Qing woodcut prints. Like portrait paintings, however, they were regarded as a means of communing with Zhu. Narrative paintings that showed scenes from Zhu``s life were produced and used in a similar manner. However, no "pictures of the holy traces of Zhu X " in the style of existing "pictures of the holy traces of Confucius" were painted in either Choson or China; this is assumed to be due to the custom of differentiating hierarchically between historical sages. Choson-era images of Zhu Xi were thus created and used, based on existing visual materials, as a result of the desire among Choson literati to commune with him.