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      • 直線-Trochoid의 合成 Rack Cutter에 對한 硏究

        崔商勳 건국대학교 부설 산업기술연구소 1984 논문집 Vol.9 No.-

        The circular tooth profile is superior to the involute tooth profile in reducing the contact stress between teeth and in maintaining the slip velocity constantly. The involute tooth profile is superior to the circular are tooth profile and to the cycloid toothe profile in processing accurately at the pitch point where the radius of curvature is zero. According to this results, we studied the tooth profile of rack cutter to increase load capacity and to have zero slip ratio near the pitch point. In our study, the tooth profile is made straight near the pitch point and is made following the trochoid curve at flank and face. The results are as follow: a. If the pressure angle is increased, the trochoid is decreased and the involute is increased. b. If the radius of rolling circle is increased, the trochoid is decreased and the involute is increased. c. If the constant distance b is increased, the trochoid is increased and the involute is decreased.

      • KCI등재

        Nutcracker Syndrome Diagnosed with 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography Angiography

        최상훈,김진섭,신태섭,이용성,최낙규,김형주 대한비뇨의학회 2009 Investigative and Clinical Urology Vol.50 No.7

        We report a case of nutcracker syndrome diagnosed with 3-dimensional computed tomography angiography (3-D CTA). Nutcracker syndrome had been confirmed by conventional venography until recent years. Nowadays, with the development of imaging techniques, color Doppler sonogram and 3-D CTA are replacing venography for the diagnosis of nutcracker syndrome. The patient, a 20-year-old male, had abrupt gross hematuria and left abdominal pain 6 months previously and intermittent microscopic hematuria thereafter. Including renal biopsy, the results of conventional hematuria study showed no abnormalities. 3-D CTA showed left renal vein compression between the abdominal aorta and superior mesenteric artery and collateral veins. The angle and distance between the superior mesenteric artery and aorta at the level of the left renal vein were 35o and 3.0 mm, respectively. We diagnosed nutcracker syndrome and later confirmed the diagnosis with venography.

      • KCI등재

        중등역사교사 임용시험의 제도변화와 개선방안 - 2013학년도와 2014학년도 출제문항을 중심으로 -

        최상훈 역사교육학회 2014 역사교육논집 Vol.53 No.-

        This study intends to survey two systems of 2009 school-year's appointment examination for middle school history teacher and 2014 school-year's appointment examination for middle school history teacher, and analyse items and tests in them, and to suggest their improvement devices. To achieve the purpose of this study, I surveyed previous studies and national documents about 2009 school-year's appointment examination for middle school history teacher and 2014 school-year's appointment examination for middle school history teacher. And I obtained and analysed items and tests in 2009 school-year's appointment examination for middle school history teacher and 2014 school-year's appointment examination for middle school history teacher Improvement devices for appointment examination for middle school history teacher suggested in this study were as follows. Firstly, the essay type examination of education subjects must be abolished because of testees’burdens and markings’difficulties. Secondly, the types of items and tests must be defined accurately and be diversified, and their number muse be increased in order to raise the content-validity and reliability of appointment examination for middle school history teacher. Thirdly, the multiple choice type of items and tests must be used in order to increase number of items and tests and cover ranges of appointment examination for middle school history teacher. Fourthly, the essay type examination must be intensified in order to test the testees’historical inquiry abilities and historical judgment abilities. Fifthly, the curricula of teacher’s colleges must be standardized in order to to raise the content-validity and reliability of appointment examination for middle school history teacher and lighten testees’burdens. Finally, the feature of excellent teachers must be defined in order to educate them and select them.

      • KCI등재

        2012년 검정 『중학교 역사 ②』 교과서의 비교 분석 -‘대한민국의 발전’ 단원을 중심으로-

        최상훈 역사교육학회 2019 역사교육논집 Vol.70 No.-

        This study intends to analyse comparatively the forms and the contents of nine “Middle School History ②” textbooks by 2012’s official approval, and to suggest implications for the 2019’s production and 2020’s official approval of “Middle School History”. To achieve the purpose of this study, I surveyed many previous articles and analysed comparatively the forms and the contents of nine “Middle School History ②” textbooks by 2012’s official approval. The suggestions of this study are as follows. Firstly, it is necessary to pass all “Middle School History” textbooks in official approval inspection, unless they cannot be used as history text books in middle schools. Secondly, it is necessary to product a great variety of “Middle School History” textbooks in the forms and the contents of textbooks. For example, textbook rich in narrative contents, textbook rich in large and interesting pictures, textbook rich in inquiry activities and reading materials, etc. Thirdly, it is necessary to increase the textbook’s pages in order to insert more contents, pictures, maps, graphs than the textbooks now in use. Lastly, it is necessary to regard official approval inspection as improvement of textbooks instead of dropping of textbooks.

      • 대학수학능력시험 역사영역 평가목표의 개선방안

        최상훈 한국역사교육학회 2007 역사교육연구 Vol.- No.6

        This study intends to find problems of social studies inquiry part's evaluation objectives in College Scholastic Abilities Test and to suggest the improvement methods of history part's evaluation objectives. To achieve the purpose of this study, I surveyed previous articles and analysed 14 years' history item and test in College Scholastic Abilities Test. Problems found in this study about me social studies inquiry part' s evaluation objectives were me vagueness of 'awareness and grasping of problems', the inappropriateness of 'planning and performing of inquiry', the equivocality of 'drawing of conclusion and evaluation', and so on. Because of the above problems and uniqueness of history, I surveyed previous articles about history education objectives and suggested new evaluation objectives of history part. Those are understanding of history knowledge, grasping of historical chronology, awareness of historical situations and issues, planning of historical inquiry, analysis and interpretation of historical sources, historical imagination and judgment. Understanding of history knowledge is the evaluation objective about memory of important historical facts, concepts and principles. Grasping of historical chronology is the evaluation objective about understanding of continuousness, changes and developments of history. Awareness of historical situations and issues is the evaluation objective about awareness of arguments and issues in historical situations. Planning of historical inquiry is the evaluation objective about selection of appropriate methods for the solution of historical problems. Analysis and interpretation of historical sources is the evaluation objective about interpretation of social backgrounds and historical meanings in historical sources. Historical imagination and judgment is the evaluation objective about judgment of historical facts' and actions appropriateness in contemporary periods. 2005학년도부터 시행되고 있는 수능체제에서는 사회탐구영역에 속하는 과목 모두 분과형 문항으로 출제되고 있다. 그리고 역사과는 사회과와 특성이 다르기 때문에 동일한 평가 목표를 가지고는 학생들의 역사능력을 올바로 측정할 수 없다. 이런 이유 때문에 본고에서는 사회탐구영역 평가목표의 문제점을 지적하고 역사영역 단독의 평가목표를 설정하고자 하였다. 본고에서 지적한 사회탐구영역 평가목표의 문제점으로는 ‘문제 인식 및 파악’이라는 평가목표의 개념이 모호하고, ‘탐구 설계 및 수행’에서 수행능력을 평가할 수 없으며, ‘결론 도출 및 평가’라는 평가목표가 다른 평가목표와 겹치는 부분이 많다는 점 등이 있다. 그리고 역사영역에서 출제된 평가문항을 분석해 볼 때 ‘문제 인식 및 파악’과 ‘자료 분석 및 해석’이라는 평기목표에 해당하는 문항이 많았는데 반해, ‘탐구 설계 및 수행’에 해당하는 문항은 적었고, ‘가치판단 및 의사결정’에 해당하는 문항은 전혀 없었다는 점도 평가목표의 적절성을 의심케 히는 증거라고 제시하였다. 이러한 문제점을 시정하기 위해 본고에서는 역사교육목표와 관련된 선행연구를 검토하고 한국사능력검정시험의 목표준거를 분석함으로써 역사영역에 적합한 평가목표를 새로 설정하였다. 역사지식의 이해, 연대기의 파악, 역사 상황 및 쟁점의 인식, 역사탐구의 설계, 역사자료의 분석 및 해석, 역사적 상상 및 판단이 그것이다. 이들 평가목표는 수능의 사회탐구영역 평가목표나 한국사능력검정시험의 목표준거를 수정 보완한 것이다.

      • KCI등재

        The Geochemistry of Copper-bearing Hydrothermal Vein Deposits in Goseong Mining District (Samsan Area), Gyeongsang Basin, Korea

        최상훈,소칠섭,권순학,최광준,Choi, Sang Hoon,So, Chil Sup,Kweon, Soon Hag,Choi, Kwang Jun The Korean Society of Economic and Environmental G 1994 자원환경지질 Vol.27 No.2

        경상분지 백악기 퇴적암류와 화산암류내 열극을 충진한 열수 맥상광체들로 구성된 삼산지역 동광상들은 구조운동에 수반되어 2회에 걸쳐 형성된 석영 및 방해석맥들로 구성된다. 변질대에 산출되는 견운모에 대한 K-Ar 연령은 약 82Ma로서, 지역주변에 암주상으로 산출되는 화강섬록암의 관입활동 등 후기 백악기 화성활동과 관련된 것임을 지시한다. 주 광화시기인 광화 I기 석영맥내에는 황철석, 유비철석, 황동석, 섬아연석, 방연석, 적철석 및 Pb-Bi-Ag-Sb계 유염광물등의 광석광물들이 녹렴석, 녹니석 등의 맥석광물들과 함께 산출되며, 광화 I기는 광물들의 산출조직과 공생관계 등에 의하여 3개의 substage (early, main, late)로 구분된다. 본역내 광상들에서의 주된 동광화작용은 약 12~3wt. % NaCl 상당 염농도를 갖는 광화유체로 부터 약 $330^{\circ}C$에서 약 $280^{\circ}C$ 에 걸쳐 진행되었으며, 초기 광화유체의 비등현상으로부터 ${\leq}100{\sim}200bar$의 광화작용시 압력이 확인된다. 주광화시기인 광화 I기중 광화유체의 ${\delta}^{34}S_{H_2S}$값이 초기 8‰에서 후기 2.3‰로 점차 감소함은 광화유체의 비등과 천수혼입에 수반되어 산소분압이 점진적으로 증가한 결과로 해석된다. 유체내 산소 및 수소 안정동위원소 연구결과, 이들 동위원소 값이 광화작용의 진행과 함께 점차 감소함은 상대적으로 낮은 water/rock 비값을 갖는 환경하에서 동위원소 교환반응을 이뤄 평행상태에 이른 광화초기 열수계내에 광화작용의 진행과 함께 산화상태의 차갑고 동위원소적 교환반응이 거의 이뤄지지 않은 천수의 혼입이 점증 하였음을 지시한다. Copper-bearing hydrothermal vein mineralization of the Samsan area was deposited in two stages (I and II) of quartz-calcite-sulfide veins which fill fissures in Cretaceous volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Gyeongsang basin. The major ore minerals, chalcopyrite and sphalerite, together with pyrite, galena, hematite, and minor sulfosalts, occur with epidote and chlorite as gangue minerals in stage I quartz veins. Chlorite geothermometry, fluid inclusion and stable isotope data indicate that copper ore was deposited mainly at temperatures between $330^{\circ}C$ and $280^{\circ}C$ from fluids with salinities between 12 and 3 equiv. wt % NaCl. Evidence of fluid boiling indicates a range of pressures from ${\leq}100$ to 200 bars bars. Within ore stage I there was an apparent decrease in ${\delta}^{34}S$ values of $H_{2}S$ with paragenetic time, from 8.0 to 2.3 per mil. This pattern was likely achieved through progressive increases in activity of oxygen accompanying boiling and mixing. In the early part of the first stage, the high temperature, high salinity fluids gave way to progressively cooler and more dilute fluids of the late parts in the first stage and of the second stage. There is a systematic decrease in calculated ${\delta}^{18}O_{water}$ values with decreasing temperature in the Samsan hydrothermal system, from values of -86 per mil for early portion of stage I through -5.9 per mil for late portion of stage I to -6.3 per mil for stage II. The ${\delta}D$ values of fluid inclusion waters also decrease with paragenetic time from -76 per mil to -86 per mil. These trends combined with mineral paragenesis and fluid inclusion data are interpreted to indicate progressive cooler, more oxidizing meteoric water inundation of an early exchanged meteoric hydrothermal system.

      • KCI등재

        Morphology, Mineralogy and Genetic Implication of Placer Gold from the Huongkhe Area, Vietnam

        최상훈,최선규,한진균,Choi, Sang-Hoon,Choi, Seon-Gyu,Han, Jin-Kyun The Korean Society of Economic and Environmental G 1996 자원환경지질 Vol.29 No.3

        베트남 홍케 광화대의 동도 및 호아하이 지역으로 부터 채취된 사금은 일반적으로 세립질로서, 동도 지역 사금은 호아하이 지역에 비하여 상대적으로 큰 입도와 낮은 분급도의 경향성을 보여준다. 이들 사금 입자의 산출형태는 장경과 단경의 비에 의하여 spherical, subprismoidal, prismoidal 및 irregular로 분류 할 수 있으며, spherical form이 ${\approx}75%$인 호아하이 지역에 비하여 동도 지역 사금 업자들의 형태는 다양하게 관찰된다. 이러한 산상에 의하면, 동도지역에 비하여 호아하이지역 사금의 이동거리 (또는 시간)가 걸었던 것으로 추정된다. 이들 사금은 그 화학조성에 의하여 electrum (type I, fineness=568~931), amalgam (type II, fineness=671~927), native gold (type III, fineness=923~999) 등으로 분류된다. Type I은 그 산출특정에 따라 상대적으로 낮은 함은량 (11~39 atomic % Ag)을 갖는 type IA와, 상대적으로 높은 함은량 (40~58 atomic % Ag)을 갖는 type IB로 세분되며, 이는 기원광상산 electrum의 화학조성을 보여주는 것으로 사료된다. Type II는 주로 호아하이지역에서 산출되며, 함수은량은 동도지역의 사금이 낮은 경향을 보여준다. Type III는 주로 type I 또는 type II 사금업자의 가장자리에 산출한다. 이들 type III의 gold-rich rim은 이동과 풍화과정중 산화환경에서 야기된 self-electrorefining과 silver의 preferential dissolution에 기인된 것으로 사료된다. 홍케지역 사금중 적어도 일부 높은 함수은량을 보이는 경우는 함금-은 천열수 광상과 유사한 환경에서 생성된 기원광상으로부터 유래되었을 것으로 추정된다. Placer gold in collected heavy minerals from several localities in Huongkhe area, is consistently very finegrained (${\leq}100$ to $400{\mu}m$). The size and size distribution show somewhat differences at Dongdo and Hoahai : at Dongdo, predominant relatively larger and wide distribution; at Hoahai, characteristic relatively finer and narrow distribution range. The morphology of gold grains is divided into the four groups assumed by the dimension ratio : spherical, subprismoidal, prismoidal, and irregular. The gold grains at Dongdo show wide morphological distribution, whereas, at Hoahai, spherical form is predominant (${\approx}75%$). Three main types of gold are classified based on their chemical composition and mode of occurrence: type I (electrum; fineness=568~931), type II (amalgam; fineness=671~927), and type III (native gold; fineness=923~999). Type I gold contains, relatively high and variable silver contents (${\approx}11$ to 58 atomic % Ag), and has been classified into two subtypes based on their silver contents (type IA, ${\approx}11{\sim}39$ atomic % Ag; type IB, ${\approx}40{\sim}58$ atomic % Ag). However, type I gold would have been generally original compositions of electrum which originated at the provenance deposits. Mercury reacts with gold and silver to form amalgam (type II gold) which has variable Hg contents (1.2~30.5 atomic % Hg). The mercury contents in gold grains at Hoahai (10.9~30.5 atomic % Hg) are higher than those at Dongdo (5.8~21.1 atomic % Hg). The gold grains from the area generally exhibit a high-purity gold (type III) rim. The individual rims on the various grains range from <1 to $80{\mu}m$ in thickness and have silver contents of <10 atomic percent Ag, even though the core compositions range from ${\approx}11$ to 58 atomic percent Ag. The rim of gold most likely is responsible for the commonly cited cases of gold from placer deposits assaying at higher values of fineness than the gold in the corresponding source lode. The gold-rich rim in the Huongkhe area apparently forms by a combination of self-electrorefining and preferential dissolution of silver under oxidizing nature during the weathering and transport process. All data of gold grains in the Huongkhe area suggest that the transport distances and/or time of placer gold at Hoahai are generally farther than those at Dongdo. The mercurian gold bearing provenance deposits at Dongdo and Hoahai would be suggest nearest epithermal gold-silver vein-type.

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