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In this paper, we investigate the following additive functional inequality kf(x) + f(y) + f(z) + f(w)k · kf(x + y) + f(z + (0.1) w)k in normed modules over a C¤-algebra. This is applied to understand homomor-phisms in C¤-algebras. Moreover, we prove the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of the functional in- equality (0.2) kf(x) + f(y) + f(z) + f(w)k · kf(x + y + z + w)k + µjjxjjpjjyjjpjjzjjpjjwjjp in real Banach spaces, where µ; p are positive real numbers with 4p 6= 1.
This these is concerned with the relation between the family life cycle(F. L. C)and vacation behaviors, and give the result that stages in the family life cycle are reflected in vacation activities. This study is focused on : (1) revealing how vacation behaviors are different from the F. L. C. stages as various demographic factors, (2) understanding how much the husband and wife have the influence in decision making over vacation choice, (3) verifying vacation behavior sequences and low they correlate or influence each other. The experiment yields the following results : (1) Both a major proponent for family vacation and an information seeker appeared to vary across stages in the F. L. C. (2) Both information sources and preparation terms for family vacation appeared to vary across stages in the F. L. C. (3) Both vacation participations and evaluation appeared to vary across stages in he F. L. C. (4) Decision structures appeared to vary according to decision criteria rather than F. L. C. stages. (5) Some vacation activities appeared to vary according to variables of demographic factors. While this study does add to present vacation literature dealing with family decision - making and choice of behavior over the F. L. C. stages, it must be seen more as a catalyst for further research than as an end in itself.
The objective of this paper is to examine the performance of value investment method based on the pretax operating earnings to market value of equity+net interest-bearing debt (EBIT/EV), book to market value of equity+net interest-bearing debt (B/EV). The ratios of the EBIT/EV and B/EV were employed in this study to examine the value and growth stock's performance comparing to the performance of S&P 500 as the market index. The value portfolio includes firms whose EBIT/EV, B/EV are among the highest 25 percent for U.S. stocks. The growth portfolio includes firms in the bottom 25 percent. we used all stocks in Portfolio123 which are supplied by Compustat, Standard & Poors, CapitalQ, and Reuters for the period of January 2, 1999 to December 31, 2014. We classified firms that have high ratios of EBIT/EV, B/EV as value stocks. Firms that have low ratios of EBIT/EV and B/EV are defined as growth stocks. The overall results show that the value stocks outperform the growth stocks. These results are not changed with different holding periods. The requirement of ROE (above 5%) has the impact on the performance of growth stocks. The growth portfolios based on EBIT/EV registered higher returns than the value portfolios. However, when we narrowed the sample to the large firms, the value stocks tend to outperform the growth stocks. The implications of the study are: (a) high EBIT/EV and B/EV ratios may be a good indicator of the underpriced security. EBIT/EV and B/EV ratios are a more discerning method, compared to earnings to price (E/P) or book-to-market equity (B/M) ratios. By using EBIT/EV and B/EV, we can utilize other fundamental data about the firm's debt position, tax and enterprise value ; (b) return on equity(ROE) is useful in finding good stocks relative to firm's future earnings streams. As a firm's earning is expected to grow, the performance of the growth stocks also improves. You don't need to avoid such a stock of the firm with high return of equity.
This study analyses family decision-making patterns for 16 economic decisions in a convenience sample of Kwangju in Korea households in which their children were questioned. The result presented in this article are based on an intensive analysis of a small body of data. although this fact limits the generaliability of result, it represents a necessary and economical first step in identifying useful concepts and relationship which can later be tested in larger sample. This study compares the result of ff. L Davis and B. P. Rugaux (1974) who examined for 25 economic decisions in a convenience sample of Balgian house holds in which both spouses were questioned. The findings of this study is that location of 16 decisions represents as same as the 25 economic decisions examined by H. L Davis and B. P. Rugaux(1974). Another findings decisions than Koreans. But decisions on vacation and outside entertainment are same decision pattern in syncratic between Koreans and Europeans
The purpose of this paper is to study the doctrines of quiet-sitting which Neo-Confucian thinkers on Sung Dynasty in China have developed and to examine the possibility of its use in present. It can be said that quiet-sitting is a unique method of meditation that Neo-Confucian scholars have synthesized the Buddhist meditation and Confucian ritual tradition. Ch'eng I tried to make Confucian meditation different from that of Buddhism by introducing the Confucian concept of ching(敬). Ch'eng I explained ching with two definitions; "Single-mindness and freedom from distracton(主一無適)" and "Be orderly and dignified(整齊嚴肅)". The former describes one's inner effort to concentrate on one thing. The latter describes one's exterior effort to assure correctness. Ch'eng I's successors such as Li Tung(李侗) and Hu Hung(胡宏) prefer the former to the latter. Li Tung taught students to sit quietly and see the disposition before the feelings have been aroused. Hu Hung's cardinal doctrine was to examine what has been aroused. Not satisfied with these methods, Chu Hsi proposed a method to emphasize the external factor in quiet-sitting. This method attempts to straighten postures and attitudes rather than observe the flow of consciousness to control the invisible mind. There is a danger that Chu Hsi's quiet-sitting will eventually be transformed into an externalism that emphasizes an external form rather than an inner one. To be a meditation that people can easily practice, do not rely too heavily on Chu Hsi's method, and returning to the way suggested by his predecessors would be a solution. 본 논문은 중국 송대에 정좌법을 발전시킨 대표적인 유학자들의 이론을 살펴보고 오늘날 그것의 활용 가능성도 찾아보려는 데 그 목적이 있다. 정좌는 유학자들이 불교의 좌선과 유교적인 예법을 종합하여 만들어낸 독특한 명상법이라고 할 수 있다. 먼저 정이는 정좌에 경(敬)이라는 유교적인 개념을 도입함으로써 불교의 좌선과는 다른 유교의 수행법을 만들고자 노력하였다. 정이는 경을 주일무적(主一無適)과 정제엄숙(整齊嚴肅)이라는 말로 정의하였다. 주일무적은 내적인 정신집중을 말하고, 정제엄숙은 외적으로 단정하고 엄숙한 태도와 자세를 말한다. 그런데 그의 후계자들은 주일무적이라는 내면적인 공부를 강조하는 방향으로 나아갔다. 예컨대 이통은 희로애락미발의 기상을 체인하라고 가르쳤으며 호굉은 이발찰식이라는 방법을 강조하였다. 이러한 방법에 만족하지 않고 주희는 정좌에서 외면적인 요소를 보다 강조하는 방법을 제시하였다. 이 방법은 보이지 않는 마음을 통제하는 데 의식의 흐름을 관찰하기보다는 자세나 태도를 반듯하게 함으로써 내면도 반듯하게 만들려고 하였다. 이러한 주희의 정좌법은 결국 내적인 마음보다는 외적인 형식을 강조하는 외식주의(外飾主義)로 변질될 위험성이 있다. 현대인들에게 다가갈 수 있는 명상법이 되려면 주희의 방법에 너무 의존하지 말고 그의 선배들이 제시한 방법으로 다시 돌아가는 것도 하나의 해결책이 되리라 생각이 된다.
이 논문의 목적은 헤겔의 불교관을 검토하고 그의 철학과 불교철학 사이에 있는 유사점들을 고찰하는 것이다. 헤겔의 불교에 대한 이해는 주로 중국에서 선교활동을 했던 예수회 선교사들이 제공한 자료들을 통해서 이루어졌다. 헤겔에 의하면 불교에서는 무(無)를 신이나 절대자로 간주하여 모든 것은 거기서 나오고 다시 거기로 돌아간다고 생각한다. 또한 불교에서는 사람들이 활동과 생각을 멈추어서 무와 하나가 되는 것을 최고의 목표로 삼고 있다고 보았다. 이러한 헤겔의 불교에 대한 설명은 일반적으로 유럽에 알려진 불교에 대한 내용과 크게 다를 것은 없다. 다만 헤겔이 불교를 포함하여 아시아의 종교를 가장 낮은 단계의 종교로 분류한 것이 다른 점이다. 헤겔은 불교에도 여러 종류의 종파가 있고 엄청난 발전이 있었다는 사실은 알지 못했다. 그런데 화엄종의 법신불인 비로자나불 사상은 헤겔의 절대관념론과 크게 다르지 않다. 이 논문에서는 헤겔의 이념에 대한 이론과 화엄종의 법신불 사상 사이에 보이는 몇 가지 유사점들을 찾아보았다. 예컨대 헤겔이 이념을 절대자 혹은 진리라고 하듯이 화엄종에서는 진리인 법(法)을 비로자나라는 부처로 숭배한다. 또한 헤겔과 마찬가지로 화엄종에서는 이 세계를 살아있는 생명체로 생각한다. 헤겔이 생각하는 이 세계는 정신인 이념이 외화한 결과물이다. 마찬가지로 화엄종에서는 이 세계는 결국 정신인 비로자나불의 현현이라고 생각한다. The purpose of this paper is to examine Hegel"s view of Buddhism and to find the correspondences that exist between Hegel"s philosophy and Buddhism. Hegel owed his understanding of Buddhism almost completely to the reports of the Jesuits. According to Hegel in Buddhism man thinks of God as nothingness. The Buddhists say that out of nothingness everything has proceeded and into everything returns. The highest state of a man consists in his immersing himself in nothingness and in the cessation of all bodily motion, of all movement of the soul. Helgel"s explanation of Buddhism doesn"t differ from the Jesuit missionary reports from China in the sixteenth century. The difference is that Hegel classified Buddhism as a religion of nature, which is the lowest stage in the hierarchy of religions. Hegel did not know that many different schools of Buddhism had developed in India and China. There was also a tremendous development of Buddhism in many asian countries. It is remarkable that there are unexpectedly many similarities between Hegel"s philosophy and the philosophy of Hwa-Yen Buddhism. In this paper is examined these similarities between Hegel"s philosophy and the idea of Vairocana Buddha in Hwa-Yen Buddhism. For example, Hegel thinks of the Idea as the Absolute and the Truth. Similarly in Hwa-Yen Buddhism the Dharma is respected as a Buddha. Both Hegel and Hwa-Yen Buddhism regard the Universe as a Organism. According to Hegel, the Idea expresses itself as nature. In Buddhism also man regards the world as a expression of Vairocana Buddha.
The objective of this paper is to construct an investment strategy based on the combination of return of capital (ROC) and earning yield ratio. The formula seeks out good businesses when they are available at bargain prices. That is to buy above-average companies at below-average prices automatic. The advantage with this method is that it is not a very difficult method and not complex than what it appears to be, particularly for ordinary investors. The return of capital and earning yield were employed in this study to examine a stock's performance comparing to the performance of S&P500 as the market index. We used all stocks in Portfolio123 which are supplied by Compustat, Standard & Poors, CapitalQ, and Reuters for the period of January 2, 1999 to December 31, 2015. Its method looks for companies that have the best combination of ROC and earning yield. The overall results show that the companies with the higher ratio outperform the companies with lower ratio. These results are strong in the up market. It can be argued that the companies with a high ratio are likely to move toward their fundamental value and generate high excess return because its stock prices are now undervalued. The implications of the study are: (a) the combination of ROC and earning yield ratio may be a good indicator of the underpriced security; (b) This ratio is a more effective method, compared to earnings to price (E/P) or book-to-market equity (B/M) ratios. By using the combination of ROC and earning yield, the formula help buy those companies that provide the best combination of being cheap and good.