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Pynchon traces Stencil's quest as an allegory of a naturalistic reading of history that seeks to plot events along a deterministic time line that will confirm Stencil's perception of his present day world as the scene of final degradation in V. The lady V. is the always absent insight or center. V. presents an enigmatic image that refuses to become clearly defined. V. may suggest far too much. V.'s identify seems to be so wide and unselective that she means no gestalt at all. In such case, V. may have no motivation, no volition, almost no realtionship to the world through which she moves. And V. may neither confirm nor disavow anything which would unlock the secrets of the world. Like the identity of V., the attempt to establish that history is part of connectness might result in a realization that history is simply disconnectness. Namely, V. keeps us dangling between the two extreme and intolerable possibilities of history.
This paper aims at analyzing Milkman's reintegration into the southern blackness of African American communal rites. As he seeks the past in a journey to the south, his geographical journey expands. His knowledge of the southern past gradually gives Milkman a sense of place in the African American culture, as well as a sense of belonging in the connectedness of the natural world. Another meaningful vehicle for his initiation occurs in the bobcat hunting scene in Shalimar where he experiences a spiritual transformation that puts him into contact with the natural world. The bobcat hunt, which provides Milkman with illumination and psychic clarity, echoes the cultural rituals of southern blackness. Milkman's re-immersion into the southern tradition of his ancestors enables him to gain an understanding of the nature of the language in which the African American vernacular is rooted in. In this milieu Milkman can enter into dialogue with the trees, the spirits, and the earth itself. Milkman is then prepared for the learning of southern blackness through encounters with Shalimar's landscapes, its communal subversive languages, and Shalimar children's ring games. Morrison's use of the traditional southern landscapes ultimately connects African Americans to their congenital places.
This paper aims to examine the hyper-reality of American society in Mark Twain's novels, particularly Adventures of Huckleberry Finn which deals with the worldly corruptions of America after the Civil War. But some critics have focused on an identity of Huck Finn rather than criticized those sophisticated depravities. I think that this tendency can overlook those periodical conditions that he had worked. In his times America underwent the social disorders due to both the Civil War and the close frontier land. The South was in troubles of master's deception, and the North in confusions of over-materialization. In fact an exceeding focus on an identity of Huck Finn may fail to notice those social problems of America. For example, although the feud between the Grangerfords and the Shepherdsons, Sherburn's cruelty, crowd's unconcern, a fraud of swindlers called Duke and the King, and their false assumption of Wilks's brothers are more important than condoned those corrupted circumstances. Accordingly this paper criticize the hyper-reality of America's Genteel Tradition, which represents the artificial culture prevalent in America after both the Civil War and the close frontier land. As well this analyses the gloomy reality of America without any signs of regenerative nature, a salvational hero, and visional frontier land.
This dissertation begins the recognition that Thomas Pychon's novels are filled with problematic consciousness on today's history. His fictional worlds are pluralistic-governed not by rigid, absolute, and universal ideas of order but by multiple, partial, overlapping, and often conflicting ideas of order. And these worlds are familiar, even when they are most bizare and surreal, because they evoke a multilayered reality in which multiple means of putting things together manage to coexist without resolving into a single, definitive system of organization. Either extreme is a product of delusion as it is governed by an overjealous attempt at meaning and self-assertion. Pynchon depicts the extremes as ideological systems. He presents a parodic panorama of life in late-capitalism, in which individuals are at the mercy of delusive economic, political, corporate, and technological orders, The moral he wants to convey seems to be that the middle ground, the realm between 'one and zero', should be maintained. This is the zone of 'interface' and 'enclave, ' transcending binary choices which serve as tools of deterministic rationalization for control. Interface and enclave represent the real present of our life. It is the point where we can maintain a proper relation to the extreme situations which Force and Counterface.
This paper aims at analysing Tupperware tendency of the consumer society which means the simulations of the individual. In post-industrial society an advanced technology and a communication system promote the Tupperware tendency connected to the simulations of the consumer society. This result in controling and dehumanizing the individual by attempting to mould them into the machine-like, functional ones. Also the individual are denied and forced into one pattern by the uniformed system of Yoyodyne Company which may be Inverarity's agent. Particularly the media system becomes instrument for the normalization of life pattern of the individual by providing a prefabricated fantasy that any individual can fulfill through the hallucinating communication. The alienated and insane people such as Oedipa, Mucho, Rosman, and Hilarius rely on LSD-25, and TV, and they understand not only these elements as a vehicle for their own projection through meaning life but also as the vehicle for the projections of administered identity onto a kind of medium. But these never provide them with meaning life and future. They ironically indulge in the meaningless repetition of experience, the decrease of energy in closed system, and paranoid delusions. The attempt to establish that everything is part of meaning life may result in a realization that everything is meaningless delusions.
Pynchon's real reality seems possible in ambiguous interface of the extreme worlds. The real present is the proper relation to the extremes of the situation this dissertation has been describing. This relation is not the absolute present refuted by relativity, a switching point in local time in which the participant remains poised at the personal relation of the situation's dimensions, rejecting the violent simplicity of a swing toward any single one, and integrating their competing claims in the interest of an equilibrium both expeditious and true. The real present is the important intersection where human affairs are governed by the twin forces of chance and design. To sum up, it is a point of ambiguity and uncertainty.
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This paper aims at emphasizing a mode of diverse interpretations that do not privilege Christian culture over any pagan' culture. In order to see the full range of pagan's ahistorical land, Cather wants to learn to read the layers of New World's landscape such as the pagan and the Christian, experiencing an ahistorical nature, a land before landscaping. Ironically though the Bishop Latour's journey into a cave seems to be an exile and a loss, it enables him to dwell in the realm of origins. The cave under the Christian landscape becomes a site wherein the New World of America reveals its significantly ancient roots, creating the shapes of redemption out of the vast inimical Christian world. The cave is the place where the pagan and the Christian are melded, as Latour's vertigo is caused by hearing the underground river. Accordingly his experience in cave attests not to wilderness and exile but to paradise and redemption. As Latour nears death, more and more life seems to him mystic's cosmic consciousness rather than an experience of the ego. His bliss derives not from a sense of the absolute indestructibility of the self but from a sense of identification with the universe. The Bishop seems to aggrandize the precisely cosmic consciousness opposed to the state of the ego on the Christian religion.
This dissertation begins with the recognition that Pynchon's world is full of Luddite spirit. This movement's object was to destroy the machinery that was replacing hand labor in the textile industry. Today's postindustrialism descends from this movement. In fact, Pynchon aims to relate this Luddite spirit to a resistant mode of thought in the postmodern culture. Throughout his novels, Pynchon insists that science and technology are not the useful tools for the attainment of man's complete happiness, but ones for his control and destruction. Because they make human world repressive and restrictive. With the development of science and technology, humanity has become increasingly withered and devalued. Advancement of scientific civilization is to deprive our men of his precious dignity. Today's cultural perversions may be efforts of science and technology. Accordingly, we must try to preserve our natural environment from the seemingly endless threats of science and technology to get our complete independence and footloose freedom. Pynchon refers to the overaching frame of an ecological imagination which would serve as coordinates for all the contradictions of industrialism.