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Background and Objectives : Cisplatin (CP) is a major chemotherapeutic agent for head and neck cancer. However, cancer cells can get drug resistance through recovering the DNA damage by CP. Mithramycin A (MA) can inhibit gene expression of multidrug resistance gene 1, c-myc or h-ras. The goal of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic effect of MA alone and combination of MA and CP on head and neck cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods : Two head and neck cancer cell lines (AMC-HN4, AMC-HN7) were treated with MA. The cellular proliferation, apoptosis and protein expression were measured with XTT assay, FACS analysis, and western blotting, respectively after MA treatment in cell lines. In order to know the combination effect of MA with CP, the cancer cell lines were treated with MA, CP, and MA/CP combination, and cellular proliferation, apoptosis and expression of apoptosis-associated proteins were measured. Results : MA inhibited the proliferation of head and neck cancer cells and induce dapoptosis. Increase of caspase activation, PLC-?1 fragmentation and percent apoptosis by MA treatment was blocked by z-VAD-fms, but not blocked by N-Acetyl Cystein. Combination of MA and CP significantly inhibited cancer cell growth and increased apoptosis compared to MA and CP alone, and it also suppressed the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins such as XIAP and Mcl-1. Conclusions : The present study suggests that MA alone andMA/CP combination chemotherapy could be a potential regiment for the control of the head and neck cancer.
The bronchial pathology of asymptomatic airway hyperreponsiveness (AHR) subjects is not well understood, and the role of atopy in the development of airway remodeling is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether atopy is associated with airway remodeling in asymptomatic AHR subjects. Five groups, i.e., atopic or non-atopic subjects with asymptomatic AHR, atopic or non-atopic healthy controls, and subjects with mild atopic asthma, were evaluated by bronchoscopic biopsy. By electron microscopy, mean reticular basement membrane (RBM) thicknesses were 4.3±1.7 ㎛, 3.4±1.8 ㎛, 2.5±1.5 ㎛, 2.6±1.1 ㎛, and 2.3±1.2 ㎛ in the mild atopic asthma, atopic and non-atopic asymptomatic AHR, atopic and nonatopic control groups, respectively (p=0.002). RBM thicknesses were significantly higher in the mild atopic asthma group and in the atopic asymptomatic AHR group than in the other three groups (p=0.048). No significant difference in RBM thickness was observed between the atopic asymptomatic AHR group and the mild atopic asthma group (p>0.05), nor between non-atopic asymptomatic AHR group and the two control groups (p>0.05). By light microscopy, subepithelial layer thicknesses between the groups showed the same results. These findings suggest that RBM thickening occurs in subjects with atopic asymptomatic AHR, and that atopy plays an important role in airway remodeling.
Sohn, Seong-Wook,Chang, Yoon-Seok,Lee, Hye-Seung,Chung, Doo-Hyun,Lee, Choon-Taek,Kim, Young-Hwan,Kim, Yoon-Keun,Min, Kyung-Up,Kim, You-Young,Cho, Sang-Heon The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences 2008 JOURNAL OF KOREAN MEDICAL SCIENCE Vol.23 No.3
<P>The bronchial pathology of asymptomatic airway hyperreponsiveness (AHR) subjects is not well understood, and the role of atopy in the development of airway remodeling is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether atopy is associated with airway remodeling in asymptomatic AHR subjects. Five groups, i.e., atopic or non-atopic subjects with asymptomatic AHR, atopic or non-atopic healthy controls, and subjects with mild atopic asthma, were evaluated by bronchoscopic biopsy. By electron microscopy, mean reticular basement membrane (RBM) thicknesses were 4.3±1.7 µm, 3.4±1.8 µm, 2.5±1.5 µm, 2.6±1.1 µm, and 2.3±1.2 µm in the mild atopic asthma, atopic and non-atopic asymptomatic AHR, atopic and non-atopic control groups, respectively (<I>p</I>=0.002). RBM thicknesses were significantly higher in the mild atopic asthma group and in the atopic asymptomatic AHR group than in the other three groups (<I>p</I>=0.048). No significant difference in RBM thickness was observed between the atopic asymptomatic AHR group and the mild atopic asthma group (<I>p</I>>0.05), nor between non-atopic asymptomatic AHR group and the two control groups (<I>p</I>>0.05). By light microscopy, subepithelial layer thicknesses between the groups showed the same results. These findings suggest that RBM thickening occurs in subjects with atopic asymptomatic AHR, and that atopy plays an important role in airway remodeling.</P>
손성욱 ( Seong Wook Sohn ),양민석 ( Min Seok Yang ),이소희 ( So Hee Lee ),송우정 ( Woo Jung Song ),이상민 ( Sang Min Lee ),권혁수 ( Hyouk Soo Kwon ),김덕인 ( Deok In Kim ),박창한 ( Chang Han Park ),박흥우 ( Heung Woo Park ),장윤석 대한천식 및 알레르기학회 ( 구 대한알레르기학회 ) 2007 천식 및 알레르기 Vol.27 No.2
Background: Eosinophilic bronchitis (EB) is recently regarded as an important cause of chronic cough. However, sputum eosinophilia is commonly encountered in the other causes of chronic cough such as upper airway cough syndrome (UACS) and asthma. Objective: To evaluate the cause of chronic cough with sputum eosinophilia. Method: We investigated patients with chronic cough. Induced sputum, methacholine bronchial provocation test, skin prick test, throat examination, chest X-ray, paranasal sinus (PNS) x-ray and rhinoscopy were performed. Result: Sputum was induced in 287 patients. Sputum eosinophilia greater than 3% was present in 117 (40.8%) patients. Among 117 patients with sputum eosinophilia, eosinophilic asthma was diagnosed in 36 (30.8%) patients, chest X-ray abnormality or ACEI use was detected in 18 (15.4%) patients, and the remaining 63 (53.8%) patients could be considered to have EB. Among 63 patients with EB, UACS and GERD were found to be combined in 48 (76.2%) and 2 (3.2%) patients, respectively. EB alone without the other causes was diagnosed in 13 (11.1%) patients. Among total 287 patients, EB was detected in 22.0%, and EB alone without the other causes in 4.5%. Conclusion: Sputum eosinophilia can be frequently detected in chronic cough. EB is the common cause in chronic cough with sputum eosinophilia. However, EB is likely to be associated with UACS, which should be considered in cases of EB. (Korean J Asthma Allergy Clin Immunol 2007;27:125-130)
Atrioventricular(AV) nodal reentry is a common cause of supraventricular tachycardia. For the treatment of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT), antiarrhythmic drug therapy requires long-term use of drugs and surgical ablation may be curative therapy but has problems of open heart surgery. Radiofrequency catheter ablation(RFCA) is reported to be safe and effective treatment modality for the frequently recurrent and severely symptomatic AVNRT. The results of treatment of AVNRT by RFCA of slow pathway is as follows. 1) The study consisted of 32 participants and the sex ratio (M: F) waw 8:24, the mean age was 40.9±15.8 yrs(19-72yrs). 2) At the electrophysiological study before RFCA, the type of reentry was common in 29 cases, uncommon in 1 case and in 2 cases were both common and uncommon type. 3) The applied modes of RFCA were constant power mode in 2 cases and temperature mode in 30 cases. 4) The number of radiofrequency current application till successful ablation was 12.1±9.1(3-39)and the mean power of applicated radiofequency current was 28.7±10.8W(8.2-41.3W). 5) Effective refractory period of antegrade fast pathwy (ERPfa) after ablation (220.0±43.3msec), in comparison with that before ablation(253.3±55. 8msec), has no statistical significance but has reducing tendency. The other parameters such as AH interval of antegrade fast pathway (AHfa), antegrade Wenckebach block cycle length (AWBCL), effective refractory period period of ventriculoatrial conduction system (ERPvacs) and ventriculoatrial block cycle length (VABCL) have no significant differences. 6) Complete AV block developed in only 1 patient who had underlying sinus dysfunction. 7) The follow-up duration was 7±3 months(1-13 months)and there was no AVNRT recurrence during this period. We conclude that the selective RFCA of slow pathway is a safe and effective treatment of AVNRT.
Alcohol-induced asthma is defined as exacerbation of asthmatic symptoms after drinking alcoholic beverages. This phenomenon is rare in Caucasians and is more specific to Asians. It has been observed among 50% of Japanese asthmatic patients and genetic predisposition in acetaldehyde metabolism is thought to be a main factor in alcohol-induced asthma. Although the genetic predisposition of acetaldehyde metabolism in Koreans may be similar to the Japanese, alcohol-induced asthma has not been reported in Korea. We experienced two cases of alcohol-induced asthma which were confirmed by oral ethanol provocation test. In the first case, a 60-year-old male asthma patient presenting a recurrent episode of wheezing and dyspnea after alcohol consumption visited our clinic. After an oral challenge with 300ml of 10% ethanol solution dissolved in 5% glucose solution, dyspnea and wheezing episode were reproduced and 23% decrease in FEV_1 compared to basal level was also shown at 20 minutes after ingestion. In the second case, a 32-year-old female asthma patient was presented with the same symptoms. After oral challenge, dyspnea and wheezing episode were reproduced and 30% decrease in FEV_1 compared to basal level was shown at 60 minutes after ingestion. Short acting bronchodilator was applied and 21% increase in FEV_1, resulted. They were instructed to avoid alcohol consumption with good results.
Poria cocos is an edible and pharmaceutical mushroom with a long history of medicinal use in Korea. For the last 30 years, the domestic cultivated supply of Poria cocos has been unable to meet consumer demand, so Poria cocos is collected in mountainous areas and also imported from China. Thus, to increase the supply of Poria cocos, many artificial cultivation methods have been studied. In this study, Poria cocos is cultivated under different environmental conditions using plastic bags and the results compared. When cultivating Poria cocos at different temperatures (20, 25, 30 and 35oC) and using different numbers of plastic bag layers (1, 2), the most efficient cultivation conditions were a temperature of 25-30oC and 2 plastic bag layers. The fastest growth was at 25-30oC, and the Poria cocos exhibited no weight change when cultivated using layers of plastic bags (1, 2).
<P>Mixed autonomic hyperactivity disorder (MAHD) among patients with acquired brain injury can be rare. A delayed diagnosis of MAHD might exacerbate the clinical outcome and increase healthcare expenses with unnecessary testing. However, MAHD is still an underrecognized and evolving disease entity. A 25-yr-old woman was admitted the clinic due to craniopharyngioma. After an extensive tumor resection, she complained of sustained fever, papillary contraction, hiccup, lacrimation, and sighing. An extensive evaluation of the sustained fever was conducted. Finally, the cause for MAHD was suspected, and the patient was successfully treated with bromocriptine for a month.</P>
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Many studies have been conducted for the plant layout using the systematic layout planning approach. However, little concern was given to the office layout when compared to the plant layout. In this research, a systematic approach to the office layout and its application to A-company were described. The whole process of generating an office layout is called here an office layout planning. To do an office layout planning, a survey was made to obtain basic raw data about the job and behavioral characteristics of white-collar employees at the office. The data were then clustered using the cluster analysis. It is known, in general, that four types of layout are preferred by the office workers according to the job and behavioral characteristics. Next, a relationship diagram was drawn between the departments of the company. The relationship was represented as symbols such as A, E, I, O, U, and X, as suggested by Murther(1974). The diagram was used to create a layout among the departments, in which the stronger the relationship the closer the departments. Thirdly, a set of basic modules was produced, which governs the size of the furniture and the basic layout of the unit team in an office. Four distinct types of office modules according to the job and behavioral characteristics were proposed out of the set of basic modules. Finally, each department was allocated to the floor according to the relationships among them. Several alternative layouts were generated and then subsequently evaluated based on their weighted Manhattan distances. Application of the proposed method to A-company showed that the systematic approach greatly improved the level of satisfaction of the office workers.