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        • Anti-mutagenic and Anti-septic Effects of β-glucan from Aureobasidium pullulans SM-2001

          구세광(Saekwang Ku) 한국한의학연구원 2009 한국한의학연구원논문집 Vol.15 No.3

          Anti-mutagenic and anti-septic effects of β-1,3/1,6-glucan from Aureobasidium pullulans SM-2001 were evaluated on the on the cyclophosphamide (CPA)-cecal ligation puncture (CLP) and CPA-treated mice. To induce immunosuppression and mutagenicity, 150 and 110 ㎎/㎏ of CPA were single intraperitoneally injected at 3 or 1 day before CLP or initial β-glucan administration. In CLP animals, the cecum was mobilized and ligated below the ileocecal valve, punctured through both surfaces twice with a 22-gauge needle. 125 ㎎/㎏ of β-glucan were dissolved in saline and subcutaneously or orally administered in a volume of 10 ml/㎏ (of body weight), 4 times, 12 hrs intervals from 6 hrs after CLP or 1 day after second dose of CPA. After treatment of β-glucan, the mortalities were observed in CPA-CLP model, and the appearance of a micronucleus is used as an index for genotoxic potential in CPA model. As results of CPA-CLP sepsis, all animals (9/9, 100%) in CPA-CLP control were dead within 2 days after CLP. In addition, increase of the number of bone marrow MNPCEs indicated mutagenicity were also observed by treatment of CPA. However, β-glucan treatment effectively inhibited the mortalities in CPA-CLP, and it also reduced the CPA treatment-related mutagenicity, respectively. These results indicated that β-glucan has effective anti-septic and anti-mutagenic effects and can be used as an agents for treating sepsis and mutagenicity related to high-dose chemotherapy or radiotherapy. However, further studies should be conducted to observe more detail action mechanisms of it's anti-septic and anti-mutagenic effects.

        • Methanolic extract from the root of Bupleuri falcatum L. attenuates cocaine-induced c-Fos expression in rat brain

          최성훈(Seonghun Choi),구세광(Saekwang Ku),한창현(Changhyun Han),양재하(Chaeha Yang) 한국한의학연구원 2010 한국한의학연구원논문집 Vol.16 No.1

          Objectives : The aim of present study is to examine the effect of methanolic extract from the root of Bupleurum falcatum L. (BF) on acute cocaine-induced c-Fos expression in the rat caudate putamen (CPu), a major dopaminergic terminal. Methods : Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to an intraperitoneal injection with either cocaine hydrochloride (20 ㎎/㎏) or saline 30 min after an administration of either extract of BF (100 ㎎/㎏, i.p.) or vehicle. Animals were sacrificed 2 hr after treatment with cocaine or saline for immunohistochemistry. Quantification of brain slices was examined for c-Fos positive nuclei using light microscopy. Results : Pretreatment with BF significantly attenuated cocaine-induced c-Fos expression in the rat CPu. Conclusions : This finding suggests that BF has the inhibitory effect on cocaine-induced c-Fos expression in the rat CPu via possibly modulating the activities of central dopaminergic systems.

        • KCI등재후보

          Changes of Gastrointestinal Chromogranin-Immunoreactive Cells after Implantation of Colon-26 Murine Carcinoma Cells in BALB/c Mouse

          Taesu Ham,Hyeungsik Lee,Jaehyun Lee,Saekwang Ku 한국실험동물학회 2005 Laboratory Animal Research Vol.21 No.3

          The changes on the regional distribution and frequency of chromogranin-immunoreactive (CG-IR) cells in gastrointestinal (GI) tract of BALB/c mouse after implantation of murine carcinoma cells, colon-26 were studied by immunohistochemical methods. The experimental animals were divided into two groups; non¬implanted (Sham) and colon-26 (CT-26) cell implanted (Colon-26) groups. Samples were collected from each part of GI tract (fundus, pylorus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum) at 28th days after subcutaneously implantation of CT-26 cells (1×10⁵ cell/mouse). CG-IR cells were distributed throughout the whole GI tract except for the rectum in Sham with various frequencies. However, they were restricted to the fundus, pylorus, duodenum and jejunum of Colon-26. A significantly (p<0.01) decrease of CG-IR cells was detected in Colon-26 compared to that of Sham in both fundus and pylorus, but similar cell frequencies were detected in the duodenum and jejunum, respectively. In conclusion, the CG is generally known that it is one of the endocrine markers. Therefore, the abnormality in density of GI endocrine cells detected in the mouse implanted with CT-26 cells may contribute to the development of GI symptoms such as anorexia and indigestion, frequently encountered in patients with cancer.

        • KCI등재후보

          OPEN ACCESS : Hepatoprotective effects of hoveniae semen cum fructus extracts in ethanol intoxicated mice

          ( Ilje Cho ),( Joowan Kim ),( Jaijun Jung ),( Soohyun Sung ),( Jongkyu Kim ),( Namju Lee ),( Saekwang Ku ) 한국운동영양학회 2016 Journal of exercise nutrition & biochemistry Vol.20 No.1

          [Purpose] The objective of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of Hoveniae Semen Cum Fructus extract in ethanol induced hepatic damages. [Methods] Hepatic damages were induced by oral administration of ethanol and then Hoveniae Semen Cum Fructus extract was administered. [Results] Following Hoveniae Semen Cum Fructus extract administration, body and liver weights were increased, while aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, albumin, γ-glutamyl transferase, and triglyceride levels in the serum, triglyceride contents, tumor necrosis factor -α level, cytochrome (CY) P450 2E1 activity in the liver and mRNA expression of hepatic lipogenic genes, and Nitrotyrosine and 4-HNE-immunolabelled hepatocytes were decreased. However, mRNA expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation was increased. Also, as a protective mechanism for hepatic antioxidant defense systems, decreased liver MDA contents, increased glutathione contents, increased dismutase and catalase activities were observed when compared to the ethanol control. [Conclusion] Hoveniae Semen Cum Fructus extract favorably protected against liver damages, mediated by its potent anti-inflammatory and anti-steatosis properties through the augmentation of the hepatic antioxidant defense system by NF-E2-related factor-2 activation, and down-regulation of the mRNA expression of hepatic lipogenic genes or up-regulation of the mRNA expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation.

        • Fabrication of Poly (ethylene oxide) Hydrogels for Wound Dressing Applicationg Using E-Beam

          ( Haryanto ),( Seongcheol Kim ),( Jeong Hwan Kim ),( Jong Oh Kim ),( Saekwang Ku ),( Hyunkug Cho ),( Do Hung Han ),( Pilho Huh ) 영남대학교 약품개발연구소 2014 영남대학교 약품개발연구소 연구업적집 Vol.24 No.0

          Cross-linked poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) hydrogel was developed for application to wound dressings. Todetermine the optimum conditions for wound dressing materials, PEO with different molecular weights and variousPEO/poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) compositions were irradiated in order to obtain cross-linked hydrogelsusing an electron beam with various beam intensities. The contents of the PEGDA influenced the gel fraction,swelling ratio, mechanical properties, and water vapor transmission rate. To evaluate the healing effect of PEO/PEGDA cross-linked hydrogel for wound dressing, wounds on the backs of mice were covered with PEO/PEGDAhydrogel films. Healing under the wet environment of the hydrogel dressing was faster than with a gauze controland a commercial reference. The results demonstrate the possibility of the facile production of mechanically robustand transparent wound dressing materials with improved wound healing characteristics.

        • Protective effect of bovine milk against HCl and ethanol–induced gastric ulcer in mice

          Yoo, Jeong-Hyun,Lee, Jeong-Sang,Lee, You-Suk,Ku, SaeKwang,Lee, Hae-Jeung Elsevier 2018 Journal of dairy science Vol.101 No.5

          <P>The purpose of this study was to investigate the gastroprotective effects of bovine milk on an acidified ethanol (HCl-ethanol) mixture that induced gastric ulcers in a mouse model. Mice received different doses of commercial fresh bovine milk (5, 10, and 20 mL/kg of body weight) by oral gavage once a day for 14 d. One hour after the last oral administration of bovine milk, the HCl-ethanol mixture was orally intubated to provoke severe gastric damage. Our results showed that pretreatment with bovine milk significantly suppressed the formation of gastric mucosa lesions. Pretreatment lowered gastric myeloperoxidase and increased gastric mucus contents and antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase. Administration of bovine milk increased nitrate/nitrite levels and decreased the malondialdehyde levels and the expression of proinflammatory genes, including transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the stomach of mice. These results suggest that bovine milk can prevent the development of gastric ulcer caused by acid and alcohol in mice.</P>

        • KCI등재

          Radiographic, MRI and Histopathologic Assessment to Standardize Canine Spinal Cord Injury Model

          Yunsang Seong(성윤상),Sungho Yun(윤성호),Jaisoon Park(박재순),Heekyung Kim(김희경),Yongmin Chang(장용민),Saekwang Ku(구세광),Hyun-Jeong Park(박현정),Kwangho Jang(장광호) 한국임상수의학회 2010 한국임상수의학회지 Vol.27 No.5

          대부분 척수손상 모델에서의 척수 손상 정도 평가는 자기공명 영상 등을 통한 유발 후 평가를 실시하고 있으며, 유발 전 평가를 위해 풍선 카테타에 주입된 공기 양을 기준한 예가 있으나 종 특이성과 개체 차이를 고려하지 못하는 단점이 있다. 이러한 단점을 극복한 척수손상 기준모델을 제시하기 위해 본 실험을 실시하였다. 방사선 평가를 통해 요추 1 번 척수강 높이가 8 ㎜로 측정된 임상적으로 건강한 비글견 8 마리를 풍선카테타의 직경과 척수 압박시간을 기준으로 4개 군 (4 ㎜/3 시간, 4 ㎜/6 시간, 4 ㎜/12 시간 그리고 6 ㎜/3 시간)으로 구분하였다. 손상 정도는 행동 관찰, 자기공명영상 해석, 체성감각유발전위평가 그리고 병리조직검사를 실시하여 평가하였다. 실험결과, 행동평가와 체성감각유발전위평가는 단지 손상 유발 여부만 지시할 뿐 정도 평가에는 유용하지 못하였다. 자기공명영상 평가에서 척수손상 부위는 단시간반전회복영상과 T2강조영상에서 불균질한 고신호강도 영역으로 관찰되었다. 고신호강도 영역은 삽입된 풍선 직경과 압박시간 증가에 따라 보다 확장되어 관찰되었으며, 이러한 소견은 공포화 등의 손상부위 증가와 카스파제-3 및 PARP 면역반응 세포의 수적 증가로 나타난 병리조직검사 결과와 일치하였다. 이러한 결과로 미루어 정형화된 척수손상 모델 유발을 위한 척수강 직경과 풍선카테타 직경 그리고 압박시간의 변수 이용과 손상 정도 평가를 위해 자기공명영상은 매우 유용할 것으로 판단된다. Previous studies could not offer available guideline to decide size of balloon and grade of injury before induction of spinal cord injury (SCI) because grade of SCI was assessed after inserting a catheter and each experimental animal were different in body size and weight as well as in species. This study was performed to provide guideline for standardized SCI model. Eight healthy adult beagle dogs that had 8 mm of spinal canal height were assigned to four groups according to the diameter of balloon and compression time: 4 ㎜/3hrs, 4 ㎜/6hrs, 4 ㎜/12hrs and 6 ㎜/3hrs group. Radiography was performed to standardize between experimental animal and balloon before selecting balloon diameter to induce SCI. Behaviors outcomes, somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathological examination were evaluated. Behaviors outcomes and SEPs were not available to assess grade of SCI and those only indicate SCI. The damaged area was revealed clear hyperintensity on STIR image and T2WI after induction of SCI. The hyperintense area on MRI was cranially and caudally expanded with increasing of the diameter of balloon or the compression time. Well corresponded to expanding of hyperintense area on MRI, the damaged region and the numbers of caspase-3 and PARP immunoreactive cells were increased on histopathological findings. Therefore, these results will be considered fundamental data to induce standardized SCI model in experimental animal that has various weight and size.

        • KCI등재후보
        • KCI등재후보

          A Case of Mammary Tumor Consisted of Fibroadenoma and Fibroma in Sprague-Dawley Rat

          Seung-Kyoo Seong,Hyeung-Sik Lee,Kwang-Ho Cho,Hyeong-Dong Kim,Dae-Yong Kim,Saekwang Ku 한국실험동물학회 2006 Laboratory Animal Research Vol.22 No.3

          An 8-month-old female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat showed a nodular subcutaneous mass (2.5×5㎝) that arises in the proximity of the mammary glands. The mass was surgically removed, and grossly and histologically observed. Grossly, it divided distinct two regions - one was squishy and grayish region, and the other was firm and white region. Histologically, the squishy and grayish region is consisted of dense collagenous stroma separating nests of secretory and non-secretory acini, and firm and white region is consisted of dense collagenous stroma only. The epithelium of acini is one to two cuboidal cell layers thick and slightly dilated. Base on the histological and gross examination, this case was diagnosed as mammary tumor consisted of fibroadenoma and fibroma. This report is very rare case of mammary tumor consisted of fibroadenoma and fibroma in a SD rat.

        • KCI등재

          Single Subcutaneous Dose Toxicity of Polycan<SUP>®</SUP>, a β-Glucan Originated from Aureobasidium in Mice

          Jaehyun Lee,Kunju Yang,Hyundong Shin,Bokryeon Park,Changwoo Son,Heejeong Jang,Dongchan Park,Hyeung-Sik Lee,Saekwang Ku 한국실험동물학회 2005 Laboratory Animal Research Vol.21 No.4

          This study was conducted to obtain the acute information of the subcutaneous dose toxicity of Polycan-originated from Aureobasidium pullulans SM-2001 (half of the dry material is β-1,3/1,6-glucans), having various pharmacological effects, in mice. Test articles were once subcutaneously administered to mice at dose levels of 250, 125 and 62.5 ㎎/㎏. The mortality and changes on body weight, clinical signs and gross observation were monitored during 14 days after dosing. As the results, we could not find mortalities, clinical signs and changes in the body weight except for residuals of test articles and related skin ulcer at injection sites. Hypertrophy of spleen related to the immune modulate effect of Polycan was dose-dependently detected in all dosing groups tested as gross findings, and hyperplasia of lymphatic follicles and increase of number of megakaryocytes in red pulps are dose-dependently observed at histopathological observation of spleen. In addition, infiltration of inflammatory cells in residuals of test articles in injection site were dose dependently detected with skin ulcer in some animals restricted to these injection sites. The skin ulcer detected in the present study was considered to be biting wounds. The results obtained in this study suggest that the Polycan have no systemic toxicity in mice and is therefore likely to be safe for clinical use. The median lethal dose (LD₅₀) and approximate lethal dose in mice after single subcutaneous dose of Polycan were considered over 250 ㎎/㎏, the highest dissolved concentration in distilled water respectively.

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