http://chineseinput.net/에서 pinyin(병음)방식으로 중국어를 변환할 수 있습니다.
변환된 중국어를 복사하여 사용하시면 됩니다.
개별검색 DB통합검색이 안되는 DB는 DB아이콘을 클릭하여 이용하실 수 있습니다.
통계정보 및 조사
예술 / 패션
<해외전자자료 이용권한 안내>
- 이용 대상 : RISS의 모든 해외전자자료는 교수, 강사, 대학(원)생, 연구원, 대학직원에 한하여(로그인 필수) 이용 가능
- 구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색 및 등록된 대학IP 대역 내에서 24시간 무료 이용
- 미구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색을 통한 오후 4시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용
※ 단, EBSCO ASC/BSC(오후 5시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용)
Object : The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of fungal infection and ulcer on the feet of diabetic patients and the existence of correlation between ulcer and fungal infection. Methods : A total 21,693 outpatients diagnosed as diabetes mellitus at the department of endocrinology of 32 hospitals were examined. The diabetic patients with foot problems were consulted to the department of dermatology. Physical examination and KOH preparation were performed. Results : 13,271 patients had certain kinds of foot problem, accounting for 61.2% of 21,693 diabetics examined. Of these, fungal foot disease were found in 10,403 that constituted 78.4% (48.0% of the entire diabetic population). Tinea pedis was the diagnosis in 6,496 (29.9%), onychomycosis in 7,783 (35.9%), and coexistence was in 3,883 (17.9%). Foot deformity was in 1,346 (6.2% of diabetics; 10.1% of foot disease), non-palpable pulse in 1,051 (4.8% ; 7.9%), and foot ulcer was in 425 (2.0% ; 3.2%), following in a descending order of frequency. Odds ratios for diabetic foot ulcer were 2.5 in patients with the foot deformity, 1.6 with fungal foot disease and 2.2 with non-palpable pulse. Conversely, Odds ratios for fungal foot disease were 2.5 with foot deformity, and 1.6 with foot ulcer. A total of 5,486 patients paid a visit to the department of dermatology. Of these, 4,519 patients were diagnosed with fungal infection through physical examination and KOH smear by dermatologists. The population comprised of 2,272 males and 2,247 females, showing similar prevalence between sexes. However, age did have positive correlation regarding prevalence of fungal foot disease. The number of diabetic patients with toenail problems was 3,847 patients (70%) and onychomycosis was proven mycologically in 3,276. Onychomycosis of distal subungal type was the most common clinical finding, most frequently involving the great toenails. Abnormal skin findings of the foot were seen in 3,885(70.8%) and tinea pedis was found in 3,209 (58.5%), most commonly involving the soles. Conclusion : This study showed that fungal infection might be regarded as a risk factor of foot ulcer. Treatment of fungal infection in diabetic patients might prevent diabetic foot disease such as ulcer and reduce the disability, morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. (Korean J Dermatol 2003;41(7) : 908~915)
<P>Although previous studies have shown that mollugin, a bioactive phytochemical isolated from <I>Rubia cordifolia</I> L. (Rubiaceae), exhibits antitumor effects, its biological activity in oral cancer has not been reported. We thus investigated the effects and putative mechanism of apoptosis induced by mollugin in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells (OSCCs). Results show that mollugin induces cell death in a dose-dependent manner in primary and metastatic OSCCs. Mollugin-induced cell death involved apoptosis, characterized by the appearance of nuclear shrinkage, flow cytometric analysis of sub-G<SUB>1</SUB> phase arrest, and annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining. Western blot analysis and RT-PCR revealed that mollugin suppressed activation of NF-<I><I>κ</I></I>B and NF-<I><I>κ</I></I>B-dependent gene products involved in antiapoptosis (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl), invasion (MMP-9 and ICAM-1), and angiogenesis (FGF-2 and VEGF). Furthermore, mollugin induced the activation of p38, ERK, and JNK and the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor E2–related factor 2 (Nrf2). Mollugin-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis of HO-1 were reversed by an HO-1 inhibitor and Nrf2 siRNA. Collectively, this is the first report to demonstrate the effectiveness of mollugin as a candidate for a chemotherapeutic agent in OSCCs via the upregulation of the HO-1 and Nrf2 pathways and the downregulation of NF-<I><I>κ</I></I>B.</P>
Lee, Nam-Hun,Seo, Chang-Seob,Lee, Ho-young,Jung, Da-Young,Lee, Jun-Kyung,Lee, Jin-Ah,Song, Kye Yong,Shin, Hyeun-kyoo,Lee, Mee-Young,Seo, Young Bae,Kim, Hokyoung,Ha, Hyekyung Hindawi Publishing Corporation 2012 Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medic Vol.2012 No.-
<P>The fruit of <I>Cornus officinalis </I>Sieb. et Zucc. is commonly prescribed in Asian countries as a tonic formula. In this study, the hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extracts of the fruit of <I>C. officinalis</I> (ECO) was investigated in a mouse model of acetaminophen- (APAP-) induced liver injury. Pretreatment of mice with ECO (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg for 7 days) significantly prevented the APAP (200 mg/kg) induced hepatic damage as indicated by the serum marker enzymes (AST, ALT, and LDH). Parallel to these changes, ECO treatment also prevented APAP-induced oxidative stress in the mice liver by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (MDA) and restoring the levels of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, and HO-1) and glutathione. Liver injury and collagen accumulation were assessed using histological studies by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Our results indicate that ECO can prevent hepatic injuries associated with APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by preventing or alleviating oxidative stress.</P>
이 글은 고 이준호 박사의 유고논문이다. 저자가 세운 이 글의 목적은 분명하다. 홉스 연구자들이 『리바이어던』을 main text로 삼고 있는 것에서 벗어나 『시민론』과 『인간론』의 중요성에 주목하고 있다. 필자는 홉스의 시민론을 직접 우리말로 번역한 바 있다. 이 번역 작업을 통해 시민론에 대한 깊은 이해와 성찰을 바탕으로 홉스 정치철학을 새롭게 해석할 가능성을 모색하고 있다. 그가 주목한 새로운 해석이란, 『시민론』에서 홉스는 전쟁을 적극적으로 반대하고 있다는 사실과 신민들의 인권 보호와 복지 증진을 위해 군주가 져야할 자연적 의무가 있다는 것을 보여주는 일이다. 또 최고통치권자에게 복종해야만 하는 근거는 통치권자 자신이 소유한 힘에 대한 ‘공포’에 있지 않고, 실정법을 위반했을 때 받게 되는 처벌의 공포에 무게 중심을 두고 있다. 3절에서 필자는 국가의 두 기원, 동의와 정복에 관해 분석하고 있다. 이 절에서 필자는 실질적 사회계약론에 대해 의문을 제기하고 있다. 애초 국가는 자연발생적으로 시작되었으며, 최고 통치권자의 자의적 통치를 견제하기 위해 신민들과 계약을 맺게 된 것이라는 필자의 해석이다. 4절에서 필자는 시민론의 열 번째 자연법에 주목하고 있다. 공정성, 즉 차별하지 말라는 자연법의 명령은 국가의 평화와 안위를 위해서 통치권자가 지켜야 할 덕목이라는 것이다. 특히 분배의 공정성을 유지하는 일이 통치권자의 의무이다. 5절은 통치권력의 절대성과 복종에 대해 설명하고 있다. 정당화된 권력은 국가의 안전을 위해 신민들의 사생활까지 감시할 수 있어야 한다고 주장한다. 당연히 오늘날의 시각에서 보면 인권침해의 위험이 있지만 홉스 당시에는 문제가 되지 않는다. 그러나 홉스는 부당한 권력에 대해서는 자발적 복종의 의무를 배제하고 있다. 통치권자도 양심과 자연법에 따라 통치할 때만 권력은 정당화되며, 신민들의 자발적 복종을 얻을 수 있다. 6절에서 필자는 자연법을 위반한 통치권자에 대한 전쟁의 권리에 대해 설명하고 있다. 신민을 적으로 만든 통치권자는 그 권력의 정당성을 상실하게 되고, 신민들은 통치권자를 향해 전쟁의 권리를 회복하게 된다는 것이다. 챨스 1세의 처형이 이에 해당된다. 결론에서는 홉스의 정치철학사적 위치를 다시 규정하고 있다. 홉스는 절대왕권주의를 지지하면서도 주권재민론의 선구자로서의 자리매김을 하고 있다. This is a paper by Dr. Lee Jun-ho who died a few years ago. The purpose of this article is clear. Dr. Lee suggests that Hobbes researchers should pay attention to the importance of De Cive and De Homine, not to consider Leviathan as the main work of Hobbes. He translated Hobbes’ De Cive and De Homine into Korean. Through this translation work, he was looking for a possibility to interpret Hobbes’ political philosophy based on deep understanding and reflection on civil theory. The new interpretation he notices is that Hobbes is actively opposed to war in the De Cive and shows that there is a natural obligation of the monarch to protect the human rights and welfare of the people. The author emphasizes that the reason for submitting to the supreme ruler is not the “fear” of the powers held by the ruling power, but the fear of punishment in violation of the law. In section 3, the author analyzes the origins of consent and conquest. In this section, he questions the actual social contract theory. It is his interpretation that the country originally started spontaneously and that it had entered into a contract with the people to check the arbitrary rule of the supreme ruler. In section 5, the author explains the absoluteness and obedience of ruling power. He maintains that justified power has to monitor the privacy of the people for the sake of national security. Of course, from today’s point of view there is a risk of human rights violations, but it is not a problem at the time. However, Hobbes excludes the obligation of voluntary obedience to unjust power. Only when the ruling power is governed by conscience and natural law, power is justified and the voluntary obedience of the people can be obtained. In section 6, the author explains the right of war to the rulers who violate natural law. The rulers who have made the enemies of the people lose the legitimacy of their power, and the people will regain the right of war to the rulers. This is the execution of Charles I. In conclusion, the author redefines the historical location of Hobbes’s political philosophy. According to the author, Hobbes has always been a pioneer of sovereignty, while supporting absolutism.
In recent years, gonorrhea has been pandemic and remains one of the most common STDs in the world, especially in developing countries. For the detection of a more effective therapeutic regimen and assessing the prevalence of Penicillinase Producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae(PPNG), we have been trying to study the patients who have visited the Venereal Disease Clinic of Choong-Ku Public Health Center in Seoul since 1980 by menas of the chromogenic cephalosporin method. In 1998, 93 strians of N. genorrhoeae were isolated, among which 60(64.5%) were PPNG. The prevalence of PPNG in Seoul, which had been decreased to 39% in 1996 after a peak of 74.3% in 1993, is increased to 64.5% in 1998.
The purpose of this study is to review (or, investigate) the life of Won Guk Lee. He is the creator of Chung-Do-Kwan, which is one of the five original Taekwondo kwans. Data was gathered from advanced research, newspapers, documentaries, the Internet, magazines, and journals etc. Thus, we were able to create a sequence of events based on the research data. First, we can say that in Won Guk Lee``s career, he created Chung-Do-Kwan and brought Dangsoodo to Korea. These events have had a significant development on Taekwondo. Second, Taekwondo curriculum, which was published by Won Guk Lee, established the foundation of Taekwondo poomsae, as well as giving us the pure spirit of Korean martial arts.
Malignant transformation of mature cystic teratoma (MCT) is rare. Sarcomatoid carcinoma is a neoplasm comprising malignant mesenchymal cells and a conventional carcinomatous area. Here, we report on a case of sarcomatoid carcinoma arising from an MCT in the left ovary of a 45-year-old female. A unilocular cyst consistent with MCT was observed; however, a nodule within the cyst was confirmed from the resected ovary. Microscopically, the nodule showed both squamous cell carcinoma and pleomorphic sarcomatous components admixing with each other. Lining epithelial cells at the periphery of the main tumor showed squamous metaplasia. When a sarcomatous component is observed in the ovary tumor, it is important to find a squamous cell component, either benign or malignant.
Recently, the robustness against daily impact is important according to portablization and downsizing of mobile electronics. Especially, almost parts of cellular phone should undergo drop test when they fall 1.5 m above ground. This test simulates the case when cellular phone slips through user's fingers while he is talking on the phone. This paper studies a drop test of auto focusing (AF) actuator for camera module in cellular phone. This component is composed of voice coil motor (VCM) as an actuator and leaf spring as a guide and suspension. The leaf spring's deformation is essential for the test because its permanent distortion disables the focusing, and then, a high quality photograph cannot be obtained. Up to now the drop test has been carried out after fabricating real AF actuator. We propose a dropt test model which simulates the drop test based on finite element analysis. This model makes us enable investigate the stress acting on the clamping and curved parts of leaf spring. Stress over Von Mises criterion lets the spring deformed permanently, and then AF actuator malfunctioned, It helps us to design and modify AF actuator without manufacturing the real product. And also, it saves the time and cost for the development of new products.
Acinar cell carcinoma is a rare tumor that represents 1~2% of al1 pancreatic cancers. Clinical and radiologic findings are inconclusive in this disease Acinar cell carcinoma is characterized by rapid progression and early metastasis, which lead to its poor prognosis. A 41-year-o1d man was admitted to our hospital for abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) showed a splenic mass, which was being invaded by a pancreatic tail mass and which had increased ^(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake Primary radical distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy were performed. Pathologic findings revealed an acinar cell carcinoma of the Pancreas The patient underwent a total gastrectomy three months later because of gastric recurrence Four months later, multiple hepatic metastases were discovered, and the patient underwent a left hepatectomy During treatment with capecitabine, there was no evidence of tumor progression for 14 months. We report a case of metastatic pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma, which did not progress for an extended period while the patient was being treated with capecitabme.