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The effects of $Cr_2O_3$ on the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of $Al_2O_3$ polycrystalline were investigated. The microstructure of $Al_2O_3-Cr_2O_3$ composites (ruby) was carefully controlled in order to obtain dense and fine-grained ceramics, thereby improving their properties and reliability with respect to numerous applications related to semiconductor bonding technology. Ruby composites were produced by Ceramic Injection Molding (CIM) technology. Room temperature strength, hardness, Young's modulus and toughness were determined, as well as surface strengthening induced by thermal treatment and production of a fine-grained homogenous microstructure.
Though space or time entertains historic nature at the point that is not itself absolute thing but the product of social, historic condition, it simultaneously readies common footing in all human acting and thinking of the society as having consistency inside a social constituents. In the 1960s when the modernization of the capitalism became serious, 'The room' as the compartmentalized subspace was gotten born and it meant entrance on the stage of 'The room' and space which is exclusive and isolated with outside in modernistic meaning-the machine. In such a social, historical condition, image of 'The room' has appeared in the 1960s' modern poetry, thereby has been materialized the isolated and secret space which is located at the antipodes to the meaning of 'The room' in our poetic history ; community spirit that awaken the family or native place. This 'The room' is such thing that is not unrelated with the gaze from outside materialized through space that is pierced like the street or plaza, and is reflecting inside of poetic subject that wishes to escape from the compulsion of the gaze. But, the work that has escaped into the closed and isolated 'The room' has been faced to the irony being entered into modernistic space-machine ; modernistic watching system in another meaning cutting human's action specifically and picking. At this time, the aspect of individual breakaway of the 1960s' poets has been detected. This aspect is written as sexual space that breaks realistic taboo in Kim young-tae's poet, and is Written as transcendental space manifesting light of the relief in Lee su-ik's or Jeong jin-gyu's poet, and is written as existential space recovering originality of the existence in Jeong hyu-njong's poet. In this way, through image of 'The room', the aspect of escape has been detected as various aspect according to individual writers, and therefore has ultimately shown confrontation aspect of Modernism through critical cognition about present age. At this time, 1960s' Modernism poetry has acquired historic significances of literature that has not limited simply to material, technical dimension, but begun to show methodologic sense connected with cognition of present age.
Background : In recent years gonorrhoea has been panendemic and remains one of the most common Sexually Transmitted Diseases in the world, especially in developing countries. Objective & Method : For the detection of a more effective therapeutic regimen and assessing the prevalence of Penicillinase Producing Neisseria Gonorrhoeae(PPNG), Ive have been trying to study the patients who have visited the VD Clinic of Choong-Ku Public Health Center in Seoul since 1980 by means of the chromogenic cephalosporin method. Results : In 1994, 168 strains of N. gonorrhoeae were isolated, among which 109 (64,9% ) were PPNG. Conclustion : Our results suggests that the prevalence of PPNG in Seoul is still increasing.
The surgery of oral and maxillofacial area poses the risk of cranial nerve damage such as trigeminal nerve or facial nerve. Inferior alveolar nerve is prone to damage in the third molar extraction, implant installation, orthognathic surgery, open reduction and rigid fixation, and tumor ablation surgery. On the other hands,facial nerve is likely to be damaged or sacrificed with trauma or parotidectomy. In case of inferior alveolar nerve injury, the incidence is reported to be about 1.3%. The nerve function will almost recover in minimal damage, but it won't recover at last in total damage of a part of nerve unit. In latter cases, nerve regeneration in intended by allograft as nerve substitute or various route of merve condit. But the recovery with autograft is believed to be most relialbe mrthod in the rapair of long-span(longer than 15㎜)nerve defect. We have performed autologous sural nerve graft in the repair of nerve defect, which is caused by resection of benign or malignant tumor. Hereby we report the method of nerve harvesting, recovery of defected peripheral nerve and the complications of donor site with the discussion of sural nerve anatomy.
본 연구에서는 심리도식치료이론과 선행연구들을 바탕으로, Young의 초기 부적응 도식의 하위영역 중 단절 및 거절 도식이 거부민감성과 친밀함에 대한 두려움을 매개로 정서적 단절에 간접적인 영향을 미치는지를 확인하였다. 이를 위해 서울 및 경기 소재 8개의 4년제 대학에 재학 중인 대학생 370명을 대상으로 자료를 수집하였고, 구조방정식 모형(SEM)을 사용하여 자료를 분석하였다. 분석 결과, 측정모형과 가설모형은 모두 자료에 적합한 것으로 나타났다. 한편, 모든 변인 간 경로를 설정한 가설모형과 비교했을 때, 거부민감성에서 정서적 단절로 가는 경로를 제외한 경쟁모형이 적합도에서는 차이가 없고 상대적으로 간명해서 최종 모형으로 채택하였다. 최종 모형에서의 구체적인 경로를 살펴보면, 단절 및 거절 도식은 직접적으로 정서적 단절에 정적인 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났고, 단절 및 거절 도식은 거부민감성과 친밀함에 대한 두려움을 통해 간접적으로 정서적 단절에 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 또한, 친밀함에 대한 두려움은 거부민감성과 정서적 단절의 관계를 완전매개하는 것으로 나타났다. 이와 같은 결과를 바탕으로 상담 실제 및 후속 연구의 방향에 대한 시사점을 논하였다. Based on the theory of schema therapy and previous studies, this study confirmed that disconnection and rejection schemas among the sub-regions of Young's early maladaptive schema have an indirect influence on the emotional cutoff through mediation of rejection sensitivity and fear of intimacy. A sample of 370 undergraduate students at 8 universities in Seoul and Gyong-gi province completed a questionnaire survey, and a structural equation model was utilized to analyze the data. Results indicated that both the measurement model, and the hypothesized structural model fit to the data. Meanwhile, when compared with the hypothesized model in which the path between all variables is established, the competitive model excluding the path from rejection sensitivity to emotional cutoff has no difference in fitness, and was relatively simple and adopted as the final model. In the final model, the link between disconnection and rejection schemas and emotional cutoff was partially mediated by rejection sensitivity and fear of intimacy. In addition, fear of intimacy was found to mediate completely the relationship between rejection sensitivity and emotional cutoff. Based on the results, implications for the direction of counseling practice and future research are discussed.
In the head and neck area, there are so many sensory nerves, which are sometimes injuried iatrogenically or inadvertently so that involved patients complained of the loss of sensations. In such cases, it is important to judge the degree of injuries and regeneration of nerve for better diagnosis and treatment. Seddon and Sunderland's classification, which is commomly used, is focused on histological change and nerve conduction. As times goes by, it is difficult to access patient's sensory disturbance by this method. Until now, so many methods such as contract threshold, direction, two-point discrimination, pin prick, thermal discrimination and current perception threshold have been introduced for sensory evaluation. However, there hasn't been enough information regarding each methodology nor integrated standard methodology for the measurement. the purpose of this study is to get Korean adult normative sensory values of lower lip,chin and tongue using modified methods of contact thershold, ditection, two point discrimination, pin prick, thermal discrimination and assess degree of regeneration of sensory nerve damage.
Steroid cell tumor is a rare ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor which accounts for 0.1% of all ovarian tumors. Until now, only 4 cases have been reported in domestic literatures. Steroid cell tumor often secrets testosterone and presents virilization in adult women or precocious puberty in children. Treatment is often performed by surgical removal, adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation, but completely accepted treatment was not existed. We experienced a case of steroid cell tumor, which was manifested by typical virilization in a 43-year old patient, who was previously performed hysterectomy and unilateral oophorectomy. So, we present with a brief review of the literatures.
연구배경: 갑상선기능항진증에 의한 갑상선중독증 환자들은 호흡곤란을 호소하며, 그 원인으로 호흡근의 근력 약화, 좌심실부전으로 인한 폐모세혈관의 울혈, 기도저항의 증가, 갑상선종으로 인한 기관의 압박, 호흡기능 이상 등이 거론되고 있다. 폐동맥고혈압이 동반된 그레이브스병 환자가 여러 증례가 보고되었으며, 폐동맥고혈압 환자에게서 갑상선 자가항체와 갑상선기능저하증의 빈도가 높음이 알려지면서 갑상선중독증이 동반된 그레이브스병 환자에게서 관찰되는 호흡곤란의 한 원인으로 폐동맥압 증가가 작용할 가능성이 제시되고 있다. 이에 저자 등은 그레이브스병 환자를 대상으로 폐동맥압을 측정하고 치료 전후의 폐동맥압의 변화를 전향적으로 연구하였다. 방법: 갑상선중독증이 동반된 그레이브스병 환자와 정상 갑상선기능을 나타낸 대조군을 대상으로 갑상선기능검사 및 갑상선 자가항체를 측정하고, 심초음파를 이용하여 치료 전후로 폐동맥압을 측정하여 폐동맥압과 갑상선기능 및 갑상선 자가항체와의 관계, 폐동맥압의 변화 등을 관찰하였다. 결과: 1. 연구대상은 대조군 10명 (남녀비 1:9, 관해 상태의 그레이브스병 3명, 갑상선종 3명, 정상인 4명), 그레이브스병 환자 26명 (남녀비 7:19)이었다. 2. 대조군과 치료 전 그레이브스병 환자의 폐동맥압은 각각 23.5±2.32 mmHg, 29.6±10.3 mmHg이었고, 치료 전의 폐동맥압과 혈청 갑상선자극호르몬 결합억제 면역글로불린 (TBII) 농도는 유의한 양의 상관관계를 보였다. 3. 26명의 그레이브스병 환자 중에서 10명 (38.5%)이 폐동맥고혈압 (기준: 폐동맥압 > 30 mmHg)으로 진단되었다. 4. 치료 전후로 폐동맥압을 측정한 13명은 폐동맥압이 치료 전 29.6±10.3 mmHg에서 치료 후 폐동맥압 22.2±6.48 mmHg로 의미있게 감소하였다. 결론: 갑상선중독증을 보이는 그레이브스병 환자의 약 40% 정도에서 폐동맥고혈압이 발견되어 폐동맥고 혈압은 그레이브스병에 흔하게 동반하는 질환으로 생각된다. 향후 그레이브스병 환자에서 관찰되는 폐동맥압의 증가와 관련한 병인, 발생기전 및 임상적 의의 등에 대한 연구가 필요할 것으로 생각된다. Background: Exertional symptoms, dyspnea and impaired effort tolerance are common in patients with Graves' disease. Proposed explanations include: high-output left heart failure, ineffective oxygen utilization and respiratory muscle weakness. In addition, pulmonary hypertension has also been reported in patients with Graves' disease. A high prevalence of hypothyroidism and positive thyroid autoantibody were also observed in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Therefore, the pulmonary artery pressure in patients with Graves' disease was evaluated. Methods: Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiographic examinations (Hewlett Packard Sonos 2500) were performed to determine the pulmonary artery (PA) pressure in 26 Graves' disease patients, both before and after treatment (23 patients with propylthiouracil and 3 with RAI), and in 10 euthyroid controls. The changes in the PA pressure after treatment were evaluated in 13 patients with Graves' disease, who became euthyroid after treatment. Results: The pulmonary artery pressure was increased in the untreated Graves' disease patients compared to the normal controls (23.5±2.32 vs. 29.6±10.3 mmHg). 38.5% of the Graves' disease patients (10/26) showed pulmonary arterial hypertension (PA>30 mmHg) and the serum TBII level was higher in the Graves' disease patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension than in those with normal PA pressure (P<0.05). In the Graves' patients who became euthyroid after treatment, the PA pressure was significantly decreased. Conclusion: 38.5% of the untreated Graves' disease patients showed pulmonary arterial hypertension, and the pulmonary artery pressure was significantly decreased in those who became euthyroid after treatment. The pathogenesis and clinical importance of pulmonary arterial hypertension in Graves' disease requires further studies (J Kor Soc Endocrinol 18:465∼472, 2003).