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목판 인쇄의 역사는 우리에게 목판 인쇄술의 탄생과 발전이 사회 문화적 요구와 밀접하게 연결되어 있다는 것을 알려준다. 조판 인쇄술의 탄생에는 두 가지 기본 조건이 있다. 하나는 물질 기술적 조건이며 또 하나는 사회 문화적 조건이다. 일찍이 진(秦)·서한(西漢, BC 211-218년) 시기, 중국에는 이미 금속·대나무·벽돌에 새겨서 탁본하는 숙련된 기술이 있었다. 동한(東漢, 25-220년) 시기에 이르면 문자 기록 장치로 부드러우면서도 편리한 종이가 발명되었다. 이로써 목판 인쇄술이 탄생하는데 필요한 물질 기술적 조건은 기본적으로 갖추어졌다. 그러나 물질 기술적 조건만으로 목판 인쇄술이 탄생할 수는 없다. 반드시 상응하는 사회 문화적 조건이 있어야만 한다. 대량의 ``지식 수요``와 상대적으로 광범위한 ``독서 인구``가 있을 때, 비로소 사람들은 사용이 편리하면서도 원가는 저렴하며 많은 내용을 저장할 수 있어 사람들의 사상 문화적 요구를 충족시켜줄 수 있는 목판 인쇄술을 발명하기 위해 노력하게 된다. 사회 문화적 요구는 기술 혁신과 발전을 가져왔고 기술 혁신과 발전은 사회 문화적 요구를 충족시켜주었다. 이 글은 목판 인쇄술의 발전 과정을 통하여 다섯 가지 측면에서 목판 인쇄술이 동아시아 문화에 미친 영향에 대해 분석할 것이다. 첫째, 한자를 널리 보급시켰다. 둘째, 불교문화 전파를 촉진시켰다. 셋째, 유교문화의 영향력을 확대시켰다. 넷째, 사상 문화 교류를 촉진시켰다. 다섯째, 동양 예술의 특징을 드러내고 있다. 전 세계 동아시아 문화권, 서구의 기독교 문화권, 그리스 정교 문화권, 이슬람 문화권, 인도 문화권 등 5대 문화권 중에서도 동아시아 문화권의 목판 인쇄술은 지역·인종·문화 등 여러 가지 이유로 인해 동아시아 문화 형성과 발전 과정에서 간과할 수 없는 중요한 역할을 했다. 목판 인쇄술은 탄생―발전―성숙―정점―쇠락에 이르기까지 1500여년이라는 세월을 거쳤다. 이 시기는 곧 동아시아 문화의 중요한 발전기이기도 하다. 목판 인쇄술은 끊임없는 자기완성의 과정을 통해 사회 문화적 요구에 부합하고 만족시키기 위해 노력해왔다. 그리고 그 무엇으로도 대체할 수 없는 목판 인쇄술이 가지는 고유의 사회적 기능은 동양 문화의 전파, 문화 통합, 문화적 동질감, 문화 자정(資政) 등 네 가지 방면에서 커다란 작용을 발휘하여 동아시아 문화권의 탄생과 발전에 직접적인 영향을 주었다. 그러므로 후대 사람들이 깊이 연구할 만한 가치가 있다. It may be firgure out from the history of block printing that the produce and developing of block printing are closely related to the requirement of socity and culture. There`re two essential conditions for the birth of block printing: technology and culture. As early as Qin and Xi Han dynasty, the technology of metal, bamboo even bricks printing has been mature. Until Dong Han dynasty, the soft and portable carrier of writing, which called paper, is invented, the produce of block printing had ingredient of necessary conditions of material. However, It is not certain of produce with which mentioned above, It needs appropriate culture conditions too, only a large number of requirments for knowledge and reading can inspire the produce of block printing, which is appling simply, cost inexpensive and high capacity. It also satisfied the need for thinking and culture. The requirments of culture and socity leads to the innovation of technology, and which satisfy the requirments in turn. The paper analysis the affect of east asia culture by block printing in five section through the developing of it: ⅰwhich spread the chinese characters, ⅱ which accelerate the accepted of buddhism, ⅲ which expands the affect of confucianism, ⅳ which promote the communication of ideology, ⅴwhich reveal the feature of east culture. In five cultural zones which consist of east asia cultural zone, west europe cultural zone, east europe cultural zone, middle east cultural zone and India cultural zone, the formation of east asia cultural zone effected by many factors such as region, ethnic group and culture. In this progress, the contribution of block printing should not be neglected. The block printing has gone through 1500 years from birth, developing, mature, glamour to decline, it is in accord with the period of important east asia culture expansion. The block printing was always trying hard to adapt and satisfy the needs of culture and socity in the progress of self-improvement, and it act as irreplaceable role in cultural spreading, cultural integration, cultural identity and bureaucracy forming and which ensures the characteristcs of east asia cultural zone directly. It worth to be studied by futurity.
Yuan, Zi-Xu,Ma, Teng-Hui,Zhong, Qing-Hua,Wang, Huai-Ming,Yu, Xi-Hu,Qin, Qi-Yuan,Chu, Li-Li,Wang, Lei,Wang, Jian-Ping Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2016 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.17 No.2
Radiation proctitis is a common complication after radiotherapy for pelvic malignant tumors. This study was conducted to assess the efficacy of novel almagate enemas in hemorrhagic chronic radiation proctitis (CRP) and evaluate risk factors related to rectal deep ulcer or fistula secondary to CRP. All patients underwent a colonoscopy to confirm the diagnosis of CRP and symptoms were graded. Typical endoscopic and pathological images, risk factors, and quality of life were also recorded. A total of 59 patients were enrolled. Gynecological cancers composed 93.1% of the primary malignancies. Complete or obvious reduction of bleeding was observed in 90% (53/59) patients after almagate enema. The mean score of bleeding improved from 2.17 to 0.83 (P<0.001) after the enemas. The mean response time was 12 days. No adverse effects were found. Moreover, long-term successful rate in controlling bleeding was 69% and the quality of life was dramatically improved (P=0.001). The efficacy was equivalent to rectal sucralfate, but the almagate with its antacid properties acted more rapidly than sucralfate. Furthermore, we firstly found that moderate to severe anemia was the risk factor of CRP patients who developed rectal deep ulcer or fistulas (P= 0.015). We also found abnormal hyaline-like thick wall vessels, which revealed endarteritis obliterans and the fibrosis underlying this disease. These findings indicate that almagate enema is a novel effective, rapid and well-tolerated method for hemorrhagic CRP. Moderate to severe anemia is a risk factor for deep ulceration or fistula.
Drawing support from international institution theory, this article analyzes China's new thinking about Asian diplomacy after the Cold War. Institutionalism was flexibly utilized by China in its peripheral regions Central Asia, Northeast Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia, which have adopted institutional models dominant participation, deep participation, active participation, and moderate participation models. China tries to handle the presence of U.S. interests well and has responded reasonably to U.S. pragmatic institutional engagement. To realize the aim of compatibility and coexistence between China and the United States in Asia, the two countries should establish interconnecting institutions in both economic and political fields. With regard to the future interactive trends of China and the United States in Asia, the author, from the dimension of international institutionalism, works out an institutional interplay nested and overlapping institutions for China and the United States to achieve accommodation.
Chitosan has been proposed to elicit defense responses in plants. In this study, we evaluated the potential roles of chitosan as a fertilizer supplement to stimulate Begonia × hiemalis Fotsch ‘Schwabenland Red’ growth and resistance to gray mold caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea. We evaluated the effect of treatment with fertilizer containing various ratios of N, P, and K in combination with different concentrations of chitosan on plant growth and disease resistance. Of the sixteen treatments examined, the treatment consisting of an N:P:K ratio of 2.8:1.0:1.4 and chitosan concentration of 0.10 g·L-1 had the most positive effect on plant height, crown development, and other horticultural traits (i.e., flowering time, flower diameter, and flower quantity) at 20, 40, and 60 days after treatment, and significantly reduced the severity and incidence of gray mold compared to the controls and other treatments at 60 days after treatment. Furthermore, this treatment markedly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activities. Based on these findings, we suggest that the chemical composition of the fertilizer and concentration of chitosan used affect the degree to which Begonia × hiemalis growth is stimulated and pathogen resistance is improved.
To evaluate the disease resistance of Begonia × hiemalis Fotsch. ‘Schwabenland Red’ mutants induced byethyl methane sulphonate (EMS), we investigated the incidence and severity of stem rot caused by Rhizoctoniasolani Kuhn, and their morphological changes. In this study, we obtained three mutants with highly resistant diseaseafter two rounds of screening when the inoculated amount was 3 sheets/plant. The severity scale was 0 and therewere no obvious symptoms of stem rot in highly resistant Begonia × hiemalis. However, most of EMS mutagenizedplants were susceptible to stem rot caused by R. solani under this inoculated amount. In addition, these resistantmutants had different phenotypes as compared with the uninfected control plants. The color of leaves of the R. solani-resistent mutants was different with the control plants and their leaves were bigger than that of the control. The shape and number of their flowers were obviously different, as compared to the control plants.
Malus sieversii, a valuable crop in Xinjiang, China, is an important natural resource for researching the genetic diversity and phylogenetic evolution of the genus Malus worldwide. Samples from 152 M. sieversii individuals with different symptom grades of deadwood were collected from Gongliu and Xinyuan and analysed with 21 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers, revealing molecular genetic characteristics and phylogeny of different groups and individuals. The samples showed high genetic diversity at the species level (Na = 10.76, Ne = 4.37, H = 0.73, I = 1.65, Ho = 0.71, and He = 0.73). Variation was mainly found within groups with lower genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.092) and higher gene flow (Nm = 2.67). A total of 226 alleles were obtained, of which 25 exclusive alleles were from samples with < 40% deadwood rate, and 23 exclusive alleles were from samples with > 40% deadwood rate. Specific bands relating to individuals with deadwood rate < 10% (10 exclusive alleles) or > 60% (7 exclusive alleles) were amplified with 11 pairs of SSR primers. The number of exclusive alleles from M. sieversii plants collected in Gongliu was 52 and from those collected in Xinyuan was 24. Using unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic cluster analysis, the groups with different symptom grades from different sampling sites were shown to be clearly differentiated and formed several discrete subclades. Significantly, the six groups from Gongliu were further classified into two subclusters: Gongliu 1, including three groups with < 40% deadwood rate, and Gongliu 2, including three groups with > 40% deadwood rate.
A pair of novel high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) 1Dx5.3t and 1Dy12.1**t were revealed and characterized from Ae. tauschii accession PI554324. SDS-PAGE band of 1Dx5.3t was between those of 1Bx6 and 1Bx7, while 1Dy12.1**t with slightly faster migration rate than that of 1Dy12. The lengths of 1Dx5.3t and 1Dy12.1**t were 2115 bp and 1986 bp, encoding 703 and 660 amino acid residues,respectively. Their authenticity was confirmed by successful expression of the coding regions in Escherichia coli. 1Dx5.3t is the shortest of the known Dx-type alleles. 1Dy12.1**t is also a special subunit since it has an additional cysteine in the front of the central repetitive domain. This cysteine that is not existed in previously reported Dy-type genes may be useful for improving bread wheat quality. Median-joining Network analysis indicated that 1Dy12.1**t may be a key site in the genealogy of the Glu-Dy.
A cDNA encoding a novel cysteine proteinase inhibitor (CPI) was isolated from a gland mutant Xiangmian-18 of upland cotton during the pigments gland forming stage. The cDNA comprises 378 bp and encodes 125 amino acid residues with molecular mass of 13.8 kDa. It contains the conserved motif of cysteine protease inhibitors and belongs to the cystatin superfamily (Gln- Val-Val-Ala-Gly). The deduced amino acid sequences of the domains are highly similar to the normal upland cotton (96.8%). SDS-PAGE and western hybridization analysis showed that the expressed recombinant protein was recombinant CPI. The inhibitory activity of recombinant CPI was 46 u/μg which was measured by inhibiting the protease activity of papain. RT-PCR results indicated that the expression level of developing gland stage was higher than that of undeveloped gland stage.
Ying-Fan Cai,Min Chen,Quan Sun,Yong-Fang Xie,Sheng-Wei Li,Jian-Chuan Mo,Ming-Feng Jiang,You-Lu Yuan,Yu-Zhen Shi,Huai-Zhong Jiang,Zheng Pan,Yun-Ling Gao,Peng-Sheng Ye,Hua-Lan Zeng 한국식물학회 2009 Journal of Plant Biology Vol.52 No.6
The pigment gland is an important character of the Gossypium plant. With the aim of identifying genes involved in pigment gland morphogenesis in cotton, gene expression during pigment gland morphogenesis in Chuan 2802, which is glanded both in seed and plant, and a glandless line N5 was profiled using Affymetrix Cotton microarray. The results showed that there were 564 differentially expressed genes greater than twofold during gland morphogenesis. About 60.2% of these genes shares similarity with known genes on GenBank and about 39.8% with no functional description in the database. These described genes may play roles in defense response, response to oxidative stress, peroxidase activity, and the other metabolic pathways. The KEGG Orthology-Based Annotation System indicated that these above twofold expressed genes involved seven biochemical pathways on KEGG. These findings suggest that a complicated regulation is associated with pigment gland morphogenesis and the associated defense response including gossypol biosynthesis in cotton.