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송제민은 어려운 경제난을 타개하기 위해 간척지 공사와 해산물 판매에 손을 댔다. 그 계기는 정개청 문하 수학과 백부 임지 방문을 위한 무안 왕래에있었다. 무안은 영산강과 서해를 양면에 끼고 있는 곳이다. 그는 배를 타고 나가 무인도를 직접 답사하였으며 그 과정에서 바다의 경제성을 간파했다. 그것을 실천에 옮겨 영광에 간척지 공사를 시도했지만, 관권의 개입과 주위의 만류로 중단되고 말았다. 그러나 해초와 소금을 매입하여 기아자를 구휼했고 의병들에게 제공하기까지 하였다. 이러한 경험을 토대로 선비란 모름지기 학문을 경세치용(經世致用)에 두어야 한다는 확신에 이르게 되었다. 이미 검증된 경험을 지닌 이지함을 스승으로 모시면서 의국(醫局)을 개설하여 병자를 돌보는 일까지 행했다. 그는 임진왜란이 일어나자 의병을 일으켜 김천일 휘하에 들어갔다. 상경하다가 수원에서 전라도를 방어하고 고경명을 후원하기 위해 충청도로 내려와 활약했고, 김덕령의 거의를 독려했다. 정유재란이 일어나자 남원에 들어가 방어책을 건의하기도 했다. 그런데 전란으로 가족들은 뿔뿔이 흩어지고 말았다. 첫째 아들, 둘째 아들, 넷째 아들이 피란 중에 일본군에게 붙잡혔다. 그 가운데 첫째와 넷째는 목숨을 잃었고, 둘째는 일본으로 납치되었다가 10년만에 귀국했다. 이후 그는 일본을 기어이 복수하겠다는 「와신기」를 지었고, 화의를 추진하고 있는 정부 정책을 비판하는 「만언소」를 올렸다. 이러한 의병과 집필활동은 그의 의리론(義理論)의 발로였다. Song Je-min worked on reclaimed land and sold marine products to resolve the difficult economic situation, inspired by his study under Jeong Gae-cheong and his move to Muan located between River Yeongsan and the Yellow Sea to visit his post. He personally explored desert islands on a boat and realized the economic potential of the sea in the process. Then he tried to implement what he realized and reclaim land, only to fail due to the government intervention and the people that checked his attempt. However, he succeeded in purchasing seaweeds and salt, saving the starved and providing them to loyal troops. Those experiences made him firmly convinced of the idea that scholars should use study for people. Having Lee Ji-ham whose experiences had been already tested as his mentor, Song even set up a clinic and helped the patients. Once Japanese invasion broke out in 1592, he raised loyal troops and went under the command of Kim Cheon-il. On his way to Seoul, he defended Jeolla Province in Suwon, went down Chungcheong Province to support Ko Gyeong-myeong, and encouraged Kim Deok-ryeong`s operation. When Jeongyujaeran broke out, he went to Namwon and discussed the defense line. Due to the war, however, his family members scattered with his first, second and fourth son captured by the Japanese soldiers during the war. His first and fourth son were killed, and his second son was abducted to Japan and returned to Joseon after ten years. After that, Song wrote Washingi, vowing his vengeance on Japan no matter what. He also submitted Maneonso, criticizing the government policy of promoting reconciliation. His activities with the loyal troops and writing projects were the manifestation of his Uiriron.
After ascending the Hone, King Jinji(眞智王) got to face the biggest political crisis due to the death of his supporting power Geochilboo(居柒夫) and Kim, Moo-ryuk(金武力) and the threat of Dongyungye(銅輪系) standing face to face with him. In this condition, King Jinji may ye independently tried to administer political situation. However, on the other hand he may have strongly coped with the incursion of Baekje(百濟) externally and tried to promote the alliance wit new power internally. What attract our attention in King Jinji attempting the political consolidation with a new power was Misirang(未尸郎) and Jinjasa(眞慈師). King Jinji had an intention to pick out a talent called Misirang, absorb him into a political power, which was deeply related to Buddhism(佛敎). And another power was Saryangboo(沙梁部). Deciding to independently operating political situation King Jinji may have made his way through the unfavorably developing circumstances by the political consolidation with Dohwanyeo(桃花女) Group of Saryangboo. However, this effort of king Jinji ended in a failure, and he was dethroned for the reason of 'Politics is chaotic and impure(政亂荒음)' by kookin(國人) supporting Baekjeong(白淨) of Dongryungye. Likewise, the tate of Dohwanyeo and Bihyungrang(鼻荊郞) is thought to ye to do with the operation of political situation in the reign of King Jinji and the content of 'Politics is chaotic and impure' is not the result of the personal character of King Jinji but the expression of unstable political situation by the threat of then Dongryungye Power, in other words the symbolization of King Jinji's awareness of political crisis.
생물다양성협약에서 국가 생물유전자원의 주권을 인정함에 따라 국가별로 생물유전자원의 관리에 대한 법적인 체계를 갖추어야 할 시기가 도래하였다. 생물유전자원의 관리에 있어서 가장 중요한 단계가 접근과 생물자원에서 파생하는 이익공유이다. 제6차 생물다양성협약 당사국 회의에서 채택된 본 지침은 접근과 이익공유과정에서 필수적인 상호합의조건과 사전통보승인제도를 포함하고 있다. 상호합의조건은 원산국과 이용 실체간의 계약 협정이고 사전통보승인제도는 생물자원 접근 전에 승인하는 것과 관련된 생물유전자원 관련 특이 제도이다. 아울러 국가연락기관과 국가책임기관의 책임, 유인조치 등에 관한 내용을 포함하고 있다. 우리나라의 생물유전자원 접근 관련 법률을 분석해 볼 때, 생물유전자원에 대한 이익공유와 특허권 문제가 고려되어 있지 않다. 생물유전자원 접근규제와 체계적인 관리를 위해서 정보 유용화 및 공개, 지적재산권을 조절하는 기관과 기타 이해관계자의 조정을 위한 국가관할기관의 역할이 중요하다. 다만, 이런 국가적 접근규제가 생물다양성관련 연구를 저해하지 않아야 하고 생물다양성협약의 목적인 생물다양성의 보존과 지속가능한 이용에 위배되어서는 안 될 것이다. Convention on Biological Diversity has authorized national sovereignty over biological resources so that legislative framework should be established. In biological resources management, the access to biological resources and the benefit sharing arising out of their utilization are two most important steps. Bonn guidelines adopted by the 6th COP of the Convention on Biological Diversity contain MAT (Mutually Agreed Terms) and PIC(Prior Informed Consent) indispensable to implement the access and benefit-sharing process. MAT is contractual agreement between provider countries and use entities while PIC is a specific measure associated with consent prior to access to biological resources. Moreover, the guidelines include the responsibilities of national focal point and competent national authority, incentives and so on. Our laws related to access to biological resources have no items on benefit-sharing and intellectual property rights. The role of the competent national authority is very important to coordinate the organization controlling information availability, opening to the public, and intellectual property rights with other stakeholders. But, the national regulations must not interfere with academic studies on biological diversity and disobey the two objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity, the conservation of biological diversity and its sustainable use.
Complex metal oxide catalysts were tested for the removal of benzene from 150℃ to 300℃ in an atmospheric fixed bed flow reactor. Supported Mn and Ag increased catalytic activity. Particularly Mn had an effect on catalytic activity when it was a little an caused decreasing of catalytic activity when it was much because metallic Ag was decreased. La didn't have an effect on catalytic activity but stability. Supported Ag plated an important role in catalytic activity when it was metallic Ag which was present at low calcination temperature(400℃) but caused decreasing of catalytic activity at high calcination temperature(800℃) because it was transformed into Ag₂MnO₄.
In this work, cell search which is one of the important functions of W-CDMA system in Rayleigh fading channel is studied by cell search simulation of asynchronous IMT-2000 system(3GPP). For the optimization of this process, three stages are considered: 1) slot synchronization, 2) frame synchronization, and 3) scrambling code identification. It is found that key system parameters such as Primary Synchronization Channel (P-SCH). Secondary Synchronization Channel(S-SCH), and Common Pilot Channel (CPCH) loading factor are optimized. It is noted that the smaller optimal threshold value, the larger SNR of the received signal. Therefore, it is important that the optimal threshold value should be selected in the region of SNR
In recent years, there is increasing interests in spot welder with industrial growth of automobile. It makes autowelding and short-time welding possible. Conventional spot welders using AC source bring about the depreciation of welding products, because constant current control makes its workpiece spattered during welding process. In this paper, the constant power control strategy using PI controller is proposed to improve the quality of the welding products. PI controller is implemented by l6bit one chip 80C196KB microcontroller. Simulation and experimental results show that DC spot welder with single phase PWM inverter is effectively controlled by the constant power control method in very short-time.
In this study, Rheoencephalography(REG) was designed and constructed. Using the constructed instrument cerebral blood flow(CBF) of left and right brain, CBF change by posture, and reproducibility were studied. Followings are important results. Relative CBF could be measured noninvasively and continuously. Since reproducibility of the constructed REG was found to be quite high (4 %), the accuracy of the instrument itself was proved. REG can be easily applied for testing the effect of drugs for the patients with cerebral vessel diseases since it is quite sensitive to the relative changes of CBF. Various cerebral diseases can be diagnosed by analyzing the REG waveforms. The area of restricted cerebral blood vessels can be located by arranging the electrode configuration. Comparative studies with the standard techniques of measuring CBF are needed to verify the accuracy of REG. Further studies on optimal electrode configuration and various artifacts are also necessary.
In this paper, principles of Rheoencephalography(REG) was described and REG was designed and developed. Using the developed instrument, REG waveforms of the left and right brain, REG waveform changes by posture, were observed. It was found that REG waveforms could be observed noninvasively. REG can be easily applied for testing the effect of various drugs related to CBF(Cerebral blood flow) since it is quite senaitive to the relative changes of CBF. Various cerebral diseases can be diagnosed by analyzing the REG waveforms. The area of restricted cerebral blood vessels can be located by arranging the appropriate electrode configuration.
본 연구는 넙치에 대한 수온 변동 자극의 영향을 생체 방어적인 측면에서 검토하고자 하였다. 수온 변동 자극은 매일 18℃에서 25℃까지 상승과 하강을 반복하는 방법을 사용하였으며 그 기간은 30일간 지속하였다. 실험어는 온도변화를 주기 시작한 후 28일째까지 무작위로 채포하여 말초혈액 중의 백혈구 수, 전혈의 식작용능, 활성산소, 환원능, chemiluminescence(CL) response 및 lysozyme용균능과 같은 각종 비특이적 생체방어와 관련한 실험을 수행하였다. 수온 변동 자극을 주기 시작한 후 1일째부터 시작하여 1주일 이내에 약 18%의 넙치가 폐사하였으며 이후에는 대조구와 유사하였다. 또한, 수온 변동 자극을 준 실험구의 호중구 수는 2주째에 유의적인 증가를 보였으며, 림프구 수는 2일과 3일째에 감소하였으나 1주째부터 대조구와 유사한 수준으로 회복되었다. 실험구에서는 식작용 결과 식균율과 식균지수에서 이물질 투여 후의 반응이 늦게 나타났다. 식세포의 활성을 조사한 NBT reduction 실험에서는 실험 기간 동안 대조구와 유사한 경향ㅇ르 나타내었다. 또한, CL response의 경우, 실험구는 온도 변동 자극초기에 대조구에 비하여 유의적으로 낮았다. 그리고, 식세포가 분비하는 용균성 효소인 점액 내 lysozyme의 활성은 실험 기간 동안 실험구에서 낮게 나타나는 경향을 보였다. 이러한 여러 가지 비특이적 생체 방어 반응의 저하 현상은 수온 변동 자극 초기에 나타났으며, 1주일 정도 지속하면 그 환경에 적응하는 것을 알 수 있었다. 그리고 이러한 현상은 이들이 초기 폐사 발생과 어떤 상관 관계에 있는 것으로 생각되었다. This study was performed to know the effects of stress nduced by the daily fluctuation of water temperature fro 18? to 25? up and down for 30 days on the defence mechanism of olive flounde,r Paralichthys olivaceus. To make clear the temperature stress on the defense mechanism of the tested fish, several factors of immune response such as counting of leucocyte appearance in periopheral blood, phagocytic activity in whole blood cells, nitroblue tetrazolium(NBT) reduction, chemiluminescence(CL) response, and lysozyme activity were investigated at 28 days after giving the change of water temperature. The fish was controlled under the none feeding condition during experimental period. Mortality of the tested fish was rapidly increased up to 22% within the first one week of the experimental period without any additional stress factors. The number of neutrophil of peripheral blood in the tested group was significantly higher than the control group at the 2nd week, but the number of lymphocyte was significantly lower than the control group at the 1st and 3rd day of the experimental period, respectively. In the NBT reduction test, the activity of macrophage in the control group fish was the highest on the 7th day while that in the tested group was on the 3rd day. Also, the phagocytosis of tested group against formalin killed cells was retarded compared with the control CL response of the tested group was significantly lower from 2nd to 5th day of the experimental period than the contro. The lysozyme activity of tested group was remained higher during the experimental period than the contro. Even through the tested fish showed different results in some non-specific factors of immune responses between tested and control group fish, olive flounder seems highly adaptable in repeated water temperature change in condition after one week under the given temperature fluctuation range