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This study was performed to evaluate the toxicity of cadmium selenide for a period of 28 days in Sprague-Dawley rats. Each of 10 healthy male and females rats per group received daily oral administration for 28-day period at dosage levels 30, 300 and 1,000 ㎎/㎏ of body weight. Mortality and clinical signs were checked, and body weight, water intake and food consumption were also recorded weekly. There were no dose-related changes in food consumption or urine volume. All animals survived to the end of study with no clinical signs or differences in body weight gain observed when compared with the control group. At the end of study, all animals including control group, were subjected to necropsy. Blood samples were collected for hematology tests including coagulation time and biochemistry analysis. Blood coagulation time and relative organ weight were unaffected by all received doses. White Blood Cell (WBC) counts significantly increased in the 300 ㎎/㎏ administered male animal group when compared to the control. Monocyte (MO) value were also increased significantly in both 300 and 1,000 ㎎/㎏ male animal group. However, Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) were significantly decreased compared with the control in the 1,000 ㎎/㎏ dose groups for male and female animals. Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) decreased significantly for female in the 300 and 1,000 ㎎/㎏ group compared to the control. Blood biochemical values of Inorganic phosphorus (IP) were significantly increased in both the 300 and 1,000 ㎎/㎏ dose groups in male animals when compared to the control. Creatinine (CRE) levels indicated significant increase in kidney function for the female, 30 ㎎/㎏ dose group when compared with control. There was a significant decrease in thymus absolute organ weight in the female, 1,000 ㎎/㎏ dose group when compared with control. Histopathological findings revealed no evidence of injury related to cadmium selenide except for one case of focal hepatic inflammation in the high dose (1,000 ㎎/㎏) group. One case of lung inflammation was also seen in the control group. Basis on these result, the No Observable Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of cadmium selenide was determined to be more than 1,000 mg/kg/day for male and female rats under conditions in this study.
1997년 5월 1일부터 3개월간 부산지역 모 조선소에서 용접작업을 하는 근로자 120명을 폭로군으로 하고 동일 업체 타 부서에서 근무하며 용접 경력이 전혀 없는 근로자 69명을 대조군으로 하여 이들의 혈중 및 뇨중 망간의 농도를 산정하고 이학적 검사, 임상 증상에 대한 설문조사 및 임상 검사를 실시하였다. 이들 결과를 이용하여 조선업종에 종사하는 용접 공들의 망간 폭로 정도와 이로 인한 건강 위해 정도를 파악함으로써 향후 이들 작업장에서 망간폭로를 미연에 예방할 뿐아니라 향후 이들 분야 종사자들의 건강증진 대책을 마련함에 있어 기초자료를 제공하고자 한다. In order to evaluate the degree of manganese exposure and its heath hazards effect on welders in shipbuilding manufacturing industry, the author measured blood and urine concentrations of manganese and blood chemistry, and also observed clinical symptoms and signs on 120 welders for case and 69 non-welders for control working in shipbuilding manufacturing industry from May to July, 1997. The obtained results were as follows : 1.The mean values of blood and urine concentrations of manganese were 3.1±0.5㎍/dl and 2.6±1.1㎍/l for exposed group, 1.2±0.4㎍/dl and 1.4±0.7㎍/l for control group, and there was statistically significant difference between exposure and control group (P<0.05). 2.Symptoms in exposed group were fatigue(62.5%), excessive sweating (56.7%), amnesia(56.7%), nervousness(54.2%), arthralgia(50.0%), headache and weakness(49.2%) and so on, and there was statistically significant difference compared to control group (P<0.05). 3.Clinical signs in exposed group were tremor(21.7%), palmomental reflex(13.3%), grabellar sign(1.7% ), rigidity(0.8%) and arm swing(0.8%). 4.Manganese exposure effect on blood chemistry, liver function and grip-strength were not observed. 5.There was not statistically significant correlation between manganese concentration in blood, urine and laboratory findings include blood chemistry, liver function and so on. As abode results. the author suggest that further studies are followed to evaluate the status of welders whose blood and urine manganese concentrations were below normal reference level, and to establish the questionnaire and the diagnostic tools to detect the cronic manganese poisioning welders early.
A rare case of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) with gross intraluminal invasion to the internal jugular vein whose clinical manifestation was multiple lung metastases is described. A 66-year-old man was referred to the outpatient clinic of the Department of Internal Medicine, hemato-oncology subdivision for multiple lung nodules found by his regular health check-up. These lung nodules showed variable sizes with irregular shapes, and typical distributions throughout the parenchyma, which were consistent with metastatic nodules. Ultrasonography revealed a 4.5 cm sized hypoechoic mass with irregular shape in his left thyroid lobe and a huge thrombus in the left internal jugular vein. PDTCs associated with gross intraluminal invasion to the great cervical vein and multiple lung nodules as their first clinical manifestation are extremely rare. We would emphasize the importance of preoperative detailed evaluation of the disseminated disease by ultrasonography in suspected patients.
In this paper, we present preliminary feasibility studies on three types of solar observation payloads for future Korean Science and Technology Satellite (STSAT) programs. The three candidates are (1) an UV imaging telescope, (2) an UV spectrograph, and (3) an X-ray spectrometer. In the case of UV imaging telescope, the most important constraint seems to be the control stability of a satellite in order to obtain a reasonably good spatial resolution. Considering that the current pointing stability estimated from the data of the Far ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (FIMS) onboard the Korean STSAT-1, is around 1 arc minutes/sec, we think that it is hard to obtain a spatial resolution sufficient for scientific research by such an UV Imaging Telescope. For solar imaging missions, we realize that an image stabilization system, which is composed of a small guide telescope with limb sensor and a servo controller of secondary mirror, is quite essential for a very good pointing stability of about 0.1 arcsec. An UV spectrograph covering the solar full disk seems to be a good choice in that there is no risk due to poor pointing stability as well as that it can provide us with valuable UV spectral irradiance data valuable for studying their effects on the Earth's atmosphere and satellites. The heritage of the FIMS can be a great advantage of developing the UV spectrograph. Its main disadvantage is that two major missions are in operation or scheduled. Our preliminary investigations show that an X-ray spectrometer for the full disk Sun seems to be the best choice among the three candidates. The reasons are : (1) high temporal and spectral X-ray data are very essential for studying the acceleration process of energetic particles associated with solar flares, (2) we have a good heritage of X-ray detectors including a rocket-borne X-ray detector, (3) in the case of developing countries such as India and Czech, solar X-ray spectrometers were selected as their early stage satellite missions due to their poor pointing stabilities, and (4) there is no planned major mission after currently operating Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) mission. Finally, we present a preliminary design of a solar X-ray spectrometer covering soft X-ray (2 keV) to gamma ray (10 MeV).
This is a review of the diagnostic imaging techniques and findings of recurrent biliary cancer after surgical resection of the extrahepatic bile duct and gallbladder. Radiological examination plays an important role in diagnosing postoperative recurrence of biliary cancers. Early detection and diagnosis of recurrent cancer is critical in obtaining proper treatment and improves the prognosis. In the surveillance of recurrent biliary cancer, several diagnostic imaging modalities are currently used. Usually CT is the most common method for surveillance of postoperative patients, but MRI and PET/CT scans are also widely used. Recurrent biliary cancer can manifest as local recurrence, liver metastasis, lymph node metastasis, and peritoneal metastasis. Imaging findings of a locally recurrent tumor or metastatic lymph node enlargement overlaps with benign postoperative changes, thus radiologists commonly overlook subtle CT findings or misinterpret them as benign postoperative changes. There are several reports that FDG-PET scan is more effective in the diagnosis of recurrent biliary tract cancer than CT. Multidisciplinary diagnostic approaches using CT, MRI, and FDG-PET as well as clinical information seem to be essential for the precise diagnosis of recurrent tumors.