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Currently, neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a standard therapeutic strategy for breast cancer, as it can provide timely and individualized chemo-sensitivity information and is beneficial for custom-designing subsequent treatment strategies. To accurately select candidates for neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the association between various immunohistochemical biomarkers of primary disease and tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been investigated, and results have shown that certain pathological indicators evaluated after neoadjuvant chemotherapy are associated with long-term prognosis. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recommended that complete pathological response can be used as a surrogate endpoint for neoadjuvant chemotherapy, which is related to better prognosis. Considering that residual tumor persists in the majority of patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the value of various pathological indicators of residual disease in predicting the long-term outcomes is being extensively investigated. This review summarizes and compares various predictive and prognostic indicators for patients who have received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and analyzes their efficacy in different breast cancer subtypes.
Purpose: Combining targeted agents with adjuvant chemotherapy prolongs survival in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer patients, but also increases the risk of adverse effects. The updated results of 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were reported in 2019. Given the lack of adequate head-to-head pairwise assessment for anti-HER2 agents, network meta-analysis facilitates obtaining more precise inference for evidence-based therapy. Methods: RCTs comparing at least 2 anti-HER2 regimens in an adjuvant setting for HER2- positive early-stage breast cancer (EBC) were included. Hazard ratios for overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS), with respective 95% confidence intervals were pooled for assessment of efficacy. A Bayesian statistical model was used, and odds ratios (ORs) for adverse events (AEs) were used to pool effect sizes. Results: We demonstrated that 1-year trastuzumab plus chemotherapy had increased efficacy compared to shorter or longer treatment duration. The OR of cardiac events gradually increased from 6 months to 1 and 2-year trastuzumab arms, relative to chemotherapy only. Compared to trastuzumab plus chemotherapy, dual HER2-targeting therapies increased DFS, especially for hormone receptor negative patients. Dual anti-HER2 blockade regimens revealed an increased probability of gastrointestinal reactions. As a second agent, pertuzumab showed significantly higher DFS and OS. Conclusion: We conclude that 1-year adjuvant trastuzumab should remain as the standard treatment for HER2-positive EBC patients, as it has greater efficacy and a manageable proportion of AEs. Clinical efficacy can be increased for hormone receptor-negative tumors by including a second HER2-targeted agent to the treatment regimen. For hormone receptor-positive cases with basal disease, it is acceptable to reduce the risk of cardiotoxicity by shortening the duration of trastuzumab.
Titanium dioxide/tungsten disulfide (TiO2/WS2) composite photocatalysts were fabricated via a one-step hydrothermal synthesis process, using TiCl4 as titanium source and bulk WS2 as sensitizer. The morphology, structure, specific surface area and optical absorption properties of the composite photocatalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), specific surface area analyzer and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectrum (UV-vis DRS), respectively. The photocatalytic activity of as-prepared photocatalysts was evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under illumination of 500W Xenon lamp. The results indicated that TiO2/WS2 composite photocatalysts possessed excellent photocatalytic activity, and ~95% of the degradation rate for MO was reached when molar ratio of WS2 to TiO2 was 0.004 and the irradiation time was 60 min. Moreover, the carrier trapping experiment and fluorescence spectra showed that •O2 − was the key component in the photocatalytic degradation process and O2 was reduced to be •O2 − by the electrons from the conduction band of TiO2 and WS2 for the degradation of MO.
Due to the undeniable importance of approximating the concrete compressive strength (CSC) in civil engineering, this paper focuses on presenting four novel optimizations of multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network, namely artificial bee colony (ABC-MLP), grasshopper optimization algorithm (GOA-MLP), shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA-MLP), and salp swarm algorithm (SSA-MLP) for predicting this crucial parameter. The used dataset consists of 103 rows of information concerning seven influential parameters (cement, slag, water, fly ash, superplasticizer, fine aggregate, and coarse aggregate). In this work, the bestfitted complexity of each ensemble is determined by a population-based sensitivity analysis. The GOA distinguished its self by the least complexity (population size = 50) and emerged as the second time-effective optimizer. Referring to the prediction results, all tested algorithms are able to construct reliable networks. However, the SSA (Correlation = 0.9652 and Error = 1.3939) and GOA (Correlation = 0.9629 and Error = 1.3922) performed more accurately than ABC (Correlation = 0.7060 and Error = 4.0161) and SFLA (Correlation = 0.8890 and Error = 2.5480). Therefore, the SSA-MLP and GOA-MLP can be promising alternatives to laboratorial and traditional CSC evaluative methods.
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Objective: To evaluate the association of GRIK2 and NLGN1 with autism spectrum disorder in a Chinese population. Methods: We performed spatio-temporal expression analysis of GRIK2 and NLGN1 in the developing prefrontal cortex, and examined the expression of the genes in ASD cases and healthy controls using the GSE38322 data set. Following, we performed a case-control study in a Chinese population. Results: The analysis using the publicly available expression data showed that GRIK2 and NLGN1 may have a role in the development of human brain and contribute to the risk of ASD. Later genetic analysis in the Chinese population showed that the GRIK2 rs6922753 for the T allele, TC genotype and dominant model played a significant protective role in ASD susceptibility (respectively: OR=0.840, p=0.023; OR=0.802, p=0.038; OR=0.791, p=0.020). The NLGN1 rs9855544 for the G allele and GG genotype played a significant protective role in ASD susceptibility (respectively: OR=0.844, p=0.019; OR=0.717, p=0.022). After adjusting p values, the statistical significance was lost (p>0.05). Conclusion: Our results suggested that GRIK2 rs6922753 and NLGN1 rs9855544 might not confer susceptibility to ASD in the Chinese population.
Customers who show high level of brand loyalty are one of the most important corporate assets. Accordingly, customers' brand loyalty has been addressed as a critical issue for the business success. In today's business environment where business channels to customers have expanded and diversified continuously, especially the use of social network services (SNSs) have drawn a lot of attention as an effective channel to promote customers' brand loyalty. This study, thus, analyzes the impact of the virtual brand community identity on customers' brand loyalty, focusing on the role of the sense of communities as mediators. The analysis was conducted by using the data collected from 239 users of Chinese virtual brand communities. The results show that both virtual brand community identity and the sense of communities significantly influence on customers' brand loyalty. Furthermore, the results reveal that both of the community belongingness and community trust composing the sense of community partially mediate virtual brand community and brand loyalty as hypothesized. Based on the results, the strategic implications are suggested and discussed, focusing on improving the customers' brand loyalty in the context of SNSs. Our findings and discussions can help companies develop their customer strategies for utilizing the virtual communities to strengthen customers' brand loyalty.
〈北京官話 支那語大海〉 is a teaching material of Chinese which was published during the Japanese occupation period. This paper is focused on the Korean transcription of Chinese consonants in 〈北京官話 支那語大海〉. The Korean transcription of Chinese consonants can be divided into tow types. The first type is one consonant to one transcription. And the second type is one consonant to more than one transcription. In 〈北京官話 支那語大海〉 there are 17 Chinese consonants correspond to the first type, and 5 Chinese consonants correspond to the second type. One consonant to one transcription type is helpful for learners. But one consonant to more than one transcription type causes confusion in pronunciation learning. In this paper we compared the Korean transcription of Chinese consonants in 〈北京官話 支那語大海〉 with another three teaching material of Chinese which were also published during the Japanese occupation period. We find that the Korean transcription of Chinese consonants in 〈北京官話 支那語大海〉 is more precise than the other three.
OCR is a complicated process, there are many factors that can influence the recognition rate. Early period people tried to optimize the classifier to obtain high recognition rate, but the premise is that there is only one character no matter print or handwritten. For the performance of classifier has been promoted a lot, recognition rate for single character is high enough for commercial use. With the development of the demand for handwritten text recognition, how to raise the recognition rate of OCR system becomes very important. Unlike OCR system for print which focus on classifier. The research of OCR system for handwritten text is mainly on character segmentation. Statistical analysis showed that the mistake made by missegment is more than the mistake made by classifier. This is decided by the feature of handwritten text. There are more randomness and the lines are not horizontal, besides that, handwritten Chinese characters are more like overlapped and the gaps between characters are smaller. So this is the difficulty of handwritten Chinese characters. In this paper, the mutil-step searching nonlinear line exaction algorithm the paper proposed is easy and the accuracy is high, which can tackle the some weaknesses of direct projection method and indirect projection.
License plate recognition belongs to the field of computer vision and pattern recognition, and plays an important role in the field of intelligent transportation. The license plate location is a key technology in license plate recognition, the accurate positioning of a license or not directly affects the accuracy of character segmentation and character recognition, and has a direct impact on the efficiency of the license plate recognition system. In this paper, based on knowledge acquisition and knowledge reduction ability of rough set, as well as learning ability and generalization ability of neural network, a plate positioning system is constructed. On this basis, combined the rough set with neural networks and fuzzy logic, a rough fuzzy neural network recognition is proposed. The experimental results show that this system not only simplifies the structure of the system, but also improves the generalization capability of knowledge, and improves the accuracy of character positioning.