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Jeong, Weon-Don. 1997. Shortening in Korean. Studies in Phonetics, Phonology and Morphology 3. 265-277. This paper deals with shortening phenomena in Korean. Among them, we examine formation of shortening, types of shortening, and properties of shortening. First, we show that shortening is often formed by partial deletion and attachment, and sometimes by glide formation. Second, we discuss that shortened forms are found not only in nouns and verbs but also in words and phrases, and that they occur in an optional way and in an obligatory way. Finally, we investigate that shortening is shown in casual style, that it changes form, that it is regarded as a process of deletion and attachment, and that it is not governed by phonological condition. (Semyung University)
This paper deals with the productivity and constraint which take place in morphology and lexicon, and also explores the relationship between two modules. Many words or compounds are made by affixation and compounding. As a result of word formation processes, possible or actual forms appear in the morphology and the lexicon. However, we need a kind of device to restrict a power of word formation. So many kinds of constraint or condition play an important role in distinguishing grammatical or acceptable forms from ungrammatical or unacceptable ones. These grammatical or acceptable forms are stored in the lexicon.
This paper deals with compounding in Korean. Compounds are regarded as the combinations of words. In Korean, however, a root or a stem can be involved in compounding formation. As in other languages, compounds in Korean have the binary structure and the head. Most compounds can be analyzed as the binary structure with hierarchy. The head in compounds occurs on the right-hand element. Compounds inherit most of syntactic and semantic information from the head. Moreover, the head determines the properties of compounds. Compounds in Korean are classified into a noun compound, a verb compound, an adverb compound, and a postposition compound. We can find a number of noun and verb compounds. But there are a small number of adverb and postposition compounds. We can divide compounds into sub-compound and co-compound in terms of the head relationship. It is difficult to distinguish compounds from phrases because they consist of words. In order to make a distinction between compound and phrase, we mention phonological, syntactic, and semantic criteria.
Segmental sounds are divided units, which include consonants and vowels. In contrast, suprasegmental sounds cannot be separated into individual elements, and express prominence relationship. They consist of syllable, stress, intonation, pitch, length, and juncture. Since the segmentals are concrete, we have paid much attention to them. However, the suprasegmentals have been scarcely dealt with because they are abstract entities. Furthermore, consonants and vowels exist in all languages, whereas the identical suprasegmentals do not appear in them. Nevertheless, the suprasegmentals have an important function to differentiate meaning. As in many other languages, Korean has the segmentals and suprasegmentals. Although no distinctive suprasegmentals exist in Korean, they are useful elements for meaning difference. This paper discusses the segmentals and suprasegmentals in Korean, and indicates that juncture in Korean suprasegmentals plays an important role in differentiating meaning. Also, I try to suggest how to teach the segmentals and suprasegmentals in Korean language education.