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The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Fu Zi on changes in the body heat of dogs. Twelve clinically healthy dogs were divided into two groups: the control group (six dogs) and the experimental group (six dogs). The control group was made to ingest normal saline mixed with canned meat, while the experimental group was made to ingest the Fu Zi solution mixed with canned meat. The infrared thermographic system was used to determine the level of body heat generated by these dogs. These areas include the dorsocranial (DCr), dorsocaudal (DCd), ventrocranial (VCr), and ventrocaudal (VCd) regions at pretreatment and were determined at 10, 20, 30, 50, 90, 120, 240, and 360 minutes after treatment for each of these areas. The results showed a tendency toward increased body heat until 30 minutes after ingestion of the Fu Zi powder mixed with canned meat. The significant differences in the changes of body heat were detected at 360 minutes in the DCd regions, 20 minutes in the VCr regions, and 30 minutes in the VCd regions between the experimental and control groups (p < 0.05). Based from our results, we find that Fu Zi can increase and maintain the dogs' body heat for at least 6 hours. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Fu Zi on changes in the body heat of dogs. Twelve clinically healthy dogs were divided into two groups: the control group (six dogs) and the experimental group (six dogs). The control group was made to ingest normal saline mixed with canned meat, while the experimental group was made to ingest the Fu Zi solution mixed with canned meat. The infrared thermographic system was used to determine the level of body heat generated by these dogs. These areas include the dorsocranial (DCr), dorsocaudal (DCd), ventrocranial (VCr), and ventrocaudal (VCd) regions at pretreatment and were determined at 10, 20, 30, 50, 90, 120, 240, and 360 minutes after treatment for each of these areas. The results showed a tendency toward increased body heat until 30 minutes after ingestion of the Fu Zi powder mixed with canned meat. The significant differences in the changes of body heat were detected at 360 minutes in the DCd regions, 20 minutes in the VCr regions, and 30 minutes in the VCd regions between the experimental and control groups (p < 0.05). Based from our results, we find that Fu Zi can increase and maintain the dogs' body heat for at least 6 hours.
A series of nitrogen-containing derivatives ofoleanolic acid and ursolic acid were prepared by a modificationat C-28 position via esterification with 2-hydroxyaceticacid followed by amidation with amines, such aspiperazine, N-methylpiperazine, and alkane-1, 2-diamines,alkane-1, 4-diamines, alkane-1, 6-diamines. In vitroantiproliferative activities of the compounds preparedtowards MCF-7, Hela and A549 cell lines were evaluatedby a MTT method to show that OA-5a, OA-5b, OA-5c andUA-5a showed somewhat improved antiproliferativeactivities against MCF-7, Hela and A549 cells comparingto that of the positive control, gefitinib.
( Tian Zhou Liu ), ( Bang Xing Wang ), ( Jin Tao Guo ), ( Yang Zhou ), ( Mugweru Julius ), ( Moses Njire ), ( Yuan Yuan Cao ), ( Tian Wu ), ( Zhi Yong Liu ), ( Chang Wei Wang ), ( Yong Xu ), ( Tian Yu Zhang ) 한국미생물 · 생명공학회 2015 Journal of microbiology and biotechnology Vol.25 No.9
The combination of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) has been shown to be active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in clinical tuberculosis (TB) treatment. However, the mechanism of action of TMP-SMX against Mtb is still unknown. To unravel this, we have studied the effect of TMP and SMX by deleting the folP2 gene in Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm), and overexpressing the Mtb and Msm folP1/2 genes in Msm. Knocking out of the folP2 gene in Msm reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration of SMX 8-fold compared with wild type. Overexpression of the folP1 genes from Mtb and Msm increased the MICs by 4- and 2-fold in Msm for SMX and TMP, respectively. We show a strong correlation between the expression of folP1 and folP2 genes and TMP-SMX resistance in mycobacteria. This suggests that a combination of FolP2 inhibitor and SMX could be used for TB treatment with a better outcome.
Background and Purpose Large cohort studies on relationship between family history of stroke(FHS) and stroke risk are lacking in Asians. We aimed to systematically evaluate the association ofFHS with stroke risk in a cohort study of 0.5 million Chinese adults. Methods Information about FHS was self-reported. The median follow-up time was 7.16 years andthe end-point of follow-up was incident stroke, which was entered directly into the China KadoorieBiobank system. Multivariate analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazards model, andinteraction analyses were carried using likelihood-ratio tests. Results Compared with participants without FHS, the hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval,CI) of stroke for participants with FHS was 1.50 (1.46-1.55). The HRs increased with the number offirst degree relatives with stroke (HRs=1.41, 1.98 and 2.47 for 1, 2 and ≥3 relatives, respectively,Ptrend <0.001). The HRs were 1.57 (95% CI: 1.50-1.66) and 1.49 (95% CI: 1.45-1.54) for siblinghistory and parental history, respectively. Similar associations with offspring stroke risk wereobserved between paternal history (HR=1.48, 95% CI: 1.43-1.54) and maternal history (HR=1.49,95% CI: 1.43-1.55). Moreover, significant interactions were detected between FHS and health-riskbehaviors (tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking). Conclusions FHS is an independent risk factor for stroke in Chinese. The more first degree relativesare affected by stroke, the higher are individuals' risk of suffering from stroke. The management ofthe health-risk behaviors for reducing stroke should be highlighted, especially for the individualswith FHS.
In this paper, we describe the development and application of a simple microfluidic device for in vitro irritation tests of cosmetics. The device was fabricated with a three-compartment diffusion system to mimic a hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) system. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cultured in the three compartments, and the tested substances were injected into the compartment, and then were drawn through the small microfluidic channels. The mortalities of cells in each compartment were monitored using a fluorescent microscope. The TS (toxicity score) values were evaluated on the basis of the mortalities of cells as a function of time when the cells were exposed to the test substances. Four kinds of cosmetic materials were tested with the microfluidic system, and the results were compared with IS (irritation score) values of a HET-CAM test to validate the in vitro irritation test system. The method developed in this study could be used for evaluation of the ocular toxicity of cosmetic ingredients, and could be widely used as an alternative test for cosmetic and medical tests or for the development of new medicines.
Due to habitat fragmentation, the loss of species diversity has been extensively studied. On the contrary, the effects of habitat fragmentation on functional diversity is still poorly understood. In the Thousand Island Lake, we conducted studies of insect functional diversity on a set of 29 isolated islands. We used 10 functional diversity indices from three aspects (functional richness, functional evenness and functional divergence) to respectively describe functional diversity of insects on sample islands. We found the following results: (i) The functional indices selected could reflect the functional diversity of sample islands and it is further proved that in general, three components of functional diversity were independent of each other; (ii) Sample islands could be divided into two categories, island JSD and the remaining islands; (iii) Functional richness increased with island area and shape index, but had no significant correlation with isolation. Likewise, both functional evenness and functional divergence had no significant correlation with island attributes. The conclusion to emphasize from our research is that: (i) habitat fragmentation reduced the biological functional diversity to some extent, further demonstrating the importance of habitat continuity in biodiversity protection; and (ii) for functional diversity protection of insects in a fragmented landscape, an island which has high approximate shape index values of at least hundred hectare magnitude order has a critical promoting effect.
This paper reports an experimental study that was accomplished to assess the seismic behavior of steel tube reinforced concrete bridge columns (SBCs). The motivation of this study was to verify a supposition that the core steel tube may be terminated at a rational position in the column to minimize the material cost while maintaining the seismic behavior of this composite column. Four SBC specimens were tested under combined constant axial load and cyclic reversed lateral loads. The unique variable in the test matrix was the core steel tube embedment length, which ranged from 1/3 to 3/3 of the column effective height. It is observed that SBCs showed two distinctly different failure patterns, namely brittle shear failure and ductile flexural failure. Tests results indicate that the hysteretic responses of SBCs were susceptible to the core steel tube embedment length. With the increase of this structural parameter, the lateral strength of SBC was progressively improved; the deformability and ductility, however, exhibited a tendency of first increase and then decrease. It is also found that in addition to maintained the rate of stiffness degradation and cumulative energy dissipation basically unchanged, both the ductility and deformability of SBC were significantly improved when the core steel tube was terminated at the mid-height of the column, and these were the most unexpected benefits accompanied with material cost reduction.
Background and Objective: There has been no universally agreed standard chemotherapy regimen for patients with advanced biliary tract carcinomas (BTC). We aimed to fully display and evaluate the clinical evidence for gemcitabine or gemcitabine-cisplatin combination for advanced BTC. Methods: Systematic searches were performed to identify relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and uncontrolled trials. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rates (ORR), tumor control rates (TCR), and toxicity were evaluated. Evidence levels of the results were evaluated with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Results: Results of the eleven gemcitabine-cisplatin trials and ten gemcitabine trials showed both chemotherapy regimens had benefits with reference to mean OS (8.63 vs. 8.79 months), mean PFS (4.86 vs. 4.72 months), pooled ORR (25.3% vs. 19.6%) and TCR (55.2% vs. 53.1%). Two RCTs showed the gemcitabine-cisplatin combination to prolong the mean PFS (mean difference [MD] 2.57, 95%CI 1.69 3.45), substantially increasing the mean OS (MD 3.59, 95% CI 3.48 3.71), and producing a similar effect in ORR (risk ratio [RR] 1.59, 95%CI 1.04 2.43), increasing TCR (RR 1.15, 95%CI 1.02 1.31) compared with gemcitabine alone, with generally manageable grade 3 or 4 adverse events. The evidence level of OS was moderate, and other outcomes (ORR, PFS, TCR, anaemia, neutropenia) were at low evidence levels. Conclusion: Available evidence was limited with low quality, which showed that both gemcitabine-cisplatin and gemcitabine alone had clinical activity with acceptable safety profiles, and gemcitabine-cisplatin appeared to be more useful for advanced BTC patients than gemcitabine alone.
退/高四端七情論辨의 초기에 退溪는 물론 高峯도 四端은 ‘無不善'하고 七情은 ‘有善惡'하다는 입장에 서 있었다. 그런데 『高峯答退溪論四端七情書』의 <후론>에서 ‘四端도 부중절할 경우가 있기 때문에 모두 선한다고 말할 수 없다'라고 주장하고 그 이기론적 근거로서 ‘理弱氣强論'을 제시하면서 문제가 제기된다. 고봉의 이 주장은, 四端은 성과 동일하게 순선하다는 맹자의 입장과 어긋나며, 四端은 理의 발현체이기 때문에 순선무악하다는 退溪의 이론도 치명상을 입게 된다. 그러므로 퇴계는 四端이 不中節할 수 있다는 ‘사실'을 부정할 수는 없으나 그 근본적인 요인은 四端자체에 있는 것이 아니라 ‘氣가 혼탁함'에 있는데, 高峯은 맹자 사단론의 본지를 곡해하고 있다고 강하게 비판한다. 하지만 고봉은 주자가 『어류』에서 ‘四端이 중절할 경우와 중절하지 못할 경우가 있다'고 말한 구절을 전거로 ‘四端不中節'을 계속해서 주장한다. 퇴계는『聖學十圖』의 제6도『心統性情圖』에서 “四端의 情은 理가 발현함에 氣가 그것을 따르니 본래 純善하여 악이 없고 반드시 理의 발현이 아직 온전히 이루어지지 못하고 氣에 가리어진 후에 不善으로 흘러가게 되는 것입니다.” 라고 하여 사단 그 자체는 순선무악하다는 입장을 고수하고 있다. 그러나 이 진술은 사단의 기가 사단의 리를 엄폐하는 것으로 해석되기 때문에 퇴계의 입장을 논리적으로 입증하기는 어려운 것으로 보인다. 고봉의 주장은 명확한 전거와 이론적 정합성을 갖추고 있는 것이라고 볼 수 있다. 그런데 퇴계가 논리적인 無理數를 두면서, 사단을 리에 영역에 소속시켜 절대가치성을 확보하려는 근본적인 이유는 어떻게 설명할 수 있을까. 그 이유는 유교적 이상사회를 이루기 위해서 현실세계에 至善을 실현할 수 있는 가능 근거를 이론적으로 확보하기 위한 것이라고 할 수 있다. 퇴계가 논변의 처음부터 끝까지 사단이라는 현실적 정감을 ‘리의 발현'으로 규정해야 한다고 일관되게 주장한 이유는 바로 여기에 있지 않을까. 그러나 주자학의 이론체계에 있어, 필연적으로 제기될 수밖에 없는 ‘사단불선'의 문제에 직면했을 때 퇴계의 주장이 논리적으로 정합성을 결여하는 부분이 없지 않다는 사실을 부정하기는 어려울 것이다. 하지만, 그렇다고 해서 퇴계사단칠정론의 윤리적 의의와 한국유학사적 위상이 훼손되는 것은 아니다. 우리는 사단의 선 불선 문제에 대한 퇴계의 변론에서, 신념과 논리의 사이에서 고뇌하는 지식인의 모습을 볼 수 있다. In the beginning of the Four-Seven Debate between T'oegye and Kobong, both T'oegye and Kobong take it for the granted that the Four Beginnings is nothing but Good and the Seven Feelings involves both Good and Evil. But on its late argument, Kobong insists that all the Four Beginnings cannot be Good, since it can also attain its improper condition[不中節]. In addition, he suggested the theory of ‘weak Principle and strong Material Force'. However, his suggestion doesn't match up with Mencius' Saying that the Four Beginnings is pure like Nature, and is lethal to T'oegye's assertion that the issuance of the Four Beginnings is purely a matter of principle and therefore nothing but Good. Despite T'oegye's assertion that the fact that the Four Beginnings can be improper condition lies in not the Four Beginnings itself but the corrupt material force. Kobong strongly criticized in T'oegye's assertion now that T'oegye distorted the principal object of Mencius' Four Beginnings theory. But Kobong keeps insisting the improper condition of the Four Beginnings on the authority of Master's Chu's words of Yu-Lei, that is, the Four Beginnings can be not only a proper condition but also an improper condition. T'oegye adhered to hie assertion that the Four Beginnings itself ispurely good without evil.[純善無惡] in that at the sixth Diagram of “the Mind Combines and Governs the Nature and the Feelings[心統性情圖]” of the Ten Diagrams on Sage Learning[聖學十圖], the Feeling of the Four Beginnings as “Principle[理] issues and Material Force[氣] follows it” is originally purely goodness without evil but, with the issuance of Principle not completed, after hidden by Material Force, falls into evil. But it seems to be impossible to logically prove his assertion in that the Material Force of the Four Beginnings hides the Principle of the Four Beginnings. In contrast with Kobong's logical and coherent assertion, how can we explain the basic reason that T'oegye lets the Four Beginnings belong to the purview of Principle to extreme value too much for himself. The reason can be said to explain the clue of the possibility to realize the pure Goodness toward the Confucius Great Society[大同社會] in the real world. Probably this may be the reason that T'oegye consistently provided the practical Feeling as the issuance of Principle. But when viewed at the theory of Master Chu's Learning, it is difficulty to deny the fact that T'oegye's assertion is lack of logical consistency, when confronted with the Problem of the Four Beginnings' evil unavoidably. However, the ethical meaning of T'oegye's Four-Seven Dabate and the status in the Confucian history of Korea must not be derogative. We can see an anguish scholar between belief and logic through T'oegye's assertion about the Good and Eevil of the Four Beginnings.
ISDS체제에 대한 공중의 질의와 반대는 체제의 탄생부터 현재까지 끊이지 않고 제기되어 왔다. 현재는 TPP협정의 체결과 TTIP협상의 가속적인 진행으로 ISDS체제에 대한 관심은 더욱 뜨거워 졌으며 국제사회의 ISDS체제에 대한 논의와 문제제기가 활발히 진행되고 있다. 그 중에서 ISDS체제에 대한 많은 반대의 의견이 나오고 있고 이 체제를 폐기하자는 의견도 나타났다. 그러나 필자는 체제에 대한 간단한 폐기보다는 체제의 단점과 부족을 분석하고 연구하여 최적화한 개혁방안을 설계함으로써 ISDS 체제의 새로운 출로를 모색하는 것이 더욱 바람직하다고 생각한다. 투자협정을 기초로 하는 ISDS체제의 설립취지는 투자자의 합법적 권익을 보호하고 국제투자의 양성(良性) 발전을 촉진하는데 있다. 그러나 현실에서는 ISDS중재판정부가 판정을 내릴 때 일반적으로 투자유치국의 공공이익을 경시하고 단편적으로 투자자의 사적 권리를 보호하는 경향이 있어 투자유치국의 공공이익, 사법주권 내지 사회의 안정에 부정적인 영향을 미치게 되고 심지어 일부 국가의 국가경제안정에 치명적인 타격을 가하게 됨으로써 국제투자 활동에서의 사적 권리와 공공이익간의 균형관계를 무너뜨리게 된다. 따라서 ISDS체제 자체도 많은 의문, 비판과 반대를 받게 되었다. 본 논문은 3개 부분으로 구성되었다. 우선 ISDS가 체결되어서부터 현재까지의 발전과정에 대하여 간략하게 소개한다. 여기에는 ISDS체제의 정의, ISDS조항에 규정되어있는 투자협정, ISDS체제의 사건수리기구 그리고 ISDS 체제의 필요성, 독창성, 존재의 의의가 포함된다. 다음으로 아르헨티나 위기, Philip Morris담배 사건, 한미FTA에 대한 사레분석을 통하여 ISDS체제대한국제사회의 비판과 반대 그리고 공공이익에 미치는 부정적인 영향을 제시한다. 그리고 ISDS체제의 성격과 특정에서 출발하여 공공이익과 사적 권리의 충돌 및 이익불균형이 발생하게 된 원인을 분석한다. 마지막으로 실체적인 측면과 절차적인 측면에서 ISDS체제에 대한 일련의 개혁조치를 제안하는 것으로 ISDS체제의 새로운 형평효과를 기대한다. 실체적인 측면에서 ISDS체제를 규정하고 있는 국제투자협정의 세부적인 내용을 명확하게 규정하고 상세한 공공이익의 예외규정을 추가함으로써 조약에 대한 중재판정부의 임의적인 해석을 제한한다. 절차적인 측면에서 ISDS체제의 투명성을 제고하고자 중재인 선임에 있어서의 공정성을 강화하고 제3자 소송제도를 개선한다. 그리고 상소 기구를 설치하여 ISDS의 잘못된 판정에 대한 구제체제를 마련함으로서 전면적으로 ISDS체제의 공정성과 합리성을 보장한다. As a relatively new form of dispute settlement in international investment, the Investor-State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) mechanism has gone through tremendous questioning and challenges in both of the academic field and the practice field. In the ongoing negotiations of the TPP and the TTIP, whether to apply the ISDS mechanism under the framework also becomes a hot debatable issue. This essay argues that reform rather than revocation should be the better way for ISDS mechanism to go. The ISDS mechanism is based on the investment treaties, with the initial purposes of protecting the legitimate rights of investors and promoting the benign development of international investment. While in the practice, some international investment tribunals gave too much protection to investors and paid little attention on the public interest of the host state, which brought negative influence to the public policy, legal sovereignty and social stability of the host state. Moreover, the backlash also comes from the transparency principal and the arbitrator selection under the ISDS mechanism. This article mainly talks about 3 aspects. Firstly, it gives a brief introduction to the birth and development of the ISDS mechanism, including the definition of ISDS, the investment treaties containing ISDS, and the international arbitration tribunals that apply the ISDS mechanism. Then the article points out the backlash and challenges to the ISDS through the cases of Argentina crisis, Philip Morris tobacco cases and the KORUS FTA. Lastly it provides some approaches to the reform of ISDS substantially and procedurally. In the perspective of substantial law, it suggests that the content and provisions of investment treaties should be specified, with the definite and specific exceptional clauses, which would limit the discretion of the arbitrators. In the procedural perspective, the transparency and the arbitrator`s impartiality should be emphasized, at the same time, the perfection of Amicus Curiae system and the establishment of the appellate body of ISDS should also be brought into mind.