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A synchronous motor(SM) with q-axis special field winding of which the q-axis field-current compensates and cancels armature reaction can be driven at unity power factor under the conditions of transient state as well as steady state. The motor operates in high efficiency in all conditions. However, in order to obtain maximum performance of the motor, it is required that the time constant of armature circuit corresponds to that of q-axis field circuit. Inverse LQ(ILQ) design method on a basis of the pole assignment is suitable for this problem:(1) The time constants of the output responses can be designed for desired specifications, (2) Relations between feedback gains and response of closed loop system are very clear and (3) Optimal solutions can be given by simple procedure of ILQ method without solving the Ricaati's equation, compared to the usual LQ design method. Accordingly, the ILQ method can make the responses of armature current and q-axis field-current correspond. In this paper, it is proved by numerical simulations and experiments that the ILQ method is very effective for optimal regulator design of this plant and realizes a high-performance motor with unity power factor and high efficiency.
For many centuries in the West, marriage was regarded as virtually indissoluble. Even today, one or two industrial countries do not recognize cuvorce. Yet these are now isolated examples. Most countries have moved rapidly cowards miling divorce more easily available, No faulr divorce laws were introduced in some countries in the mid-1960s. Since tben many western states have followed suit, although the details vary. The Japanese Divorce Law was strictly fault-based before the commencement of the Family Reform Act of 1947. The Divorce Law was built around the notion chat one spouse was guilty of a matrimonial offence. However, the Family Reform Act of 1947 is based on the no-fault principle. The grounds for divorce are adultery, desertion unknown whereabouts for more than three years, disease of the mind, or other circumstances that prevent the parties from maintaining the matrimonial bond (An. 770 Civil Code Section 1). The latter three grounds ilIustrare the no-fault principle. The former two are regarded as typical examples of rhe dissolution of the marriage bond in Japanese Law, bur not as fault grounds. Even if one of the above-mentioned grounds for divorce exists, a petition can be dismissed, because Arc.770 Civil Code Section 2 prescribes dismissal, if ir appears ro the coure thar the matrimonial bond should be kept. This Ankle has been criricized for giving judges almost unlimited discretion to determine whether to grant the petition for divorce. For many years, a petition for divorce by a guilty spouse was not permitted in Japan. In 1987, the Supreme coutt changed this doctrine and concluded that a marriage that has irretrievably broken down should be brought to end. The dissolution, however, will include the conditions to prevent Dot resulc in grave financial, mental, or social hardship for the espondenc and chijdten. In 1996 the Reform Family Act Biu was introduced. In relation to divorce, It attempts to make che no-faulc pcinciple consiscent. Nociceable changes are the adoption of a new ground, living aparc for five years and a hardship bar. The five years separacion provision plays an impoccant role as an objective measure of irretrievable breakdowd and eliminates the need for expose cheir private lives for proof of cerrain marital breakdown. The Hardship bar will certainly help innocenc respondentS. However, in che usual casc, the financial hardship should be solved with distribution of property on divocce. Mental hardship, on the other hand, is often unavoidable in any divorce. So, a petition should not be easily dismissed. Excessive applicacion of the hardship bar will lead to a tevctsion co the former fault ptinciple. I think the duty of divorce law is not co help an innocenc spouse by maincaining an already-desccoyed marical bond, buc racher co bring an end to such a bond and to procect cbe respondent and children financially and socially. Regrettably, however, institutions fot financial and social support (both public and private) are not sufficient. The Reform Ace Bill of L996 has no provisions co cure chis deficiency. Inscead, ic has chosen a way to dismiss a petition for divotce under a hardship bar. The Reform Act Bill has faced a difficulr time and has noe yet been laid before the earire Diee.
Medieval manuscripts are often illustrated but miniatures that accompany the text are not the only type of illustration. Images are often inserted as historiated initials or fill the margin of the page as a border decoration. Such marginal images are now studied in terms of both literary history and the history of the book. This essay surveys several examples of such images, especially those of fantastical creatures and hybrid figures known as chimera in the Middle Ages. The possible interaction between the text and such images are discussed with special reference to the Queen Mary's Psalter and the Luttrell Psalter. It will also be pointed out that in the 15th and early 16th century, as the Book of Hours becomes increasingly popular in both manuscript and print, such images in the margin lose subversive potential and are used frequently as a decorative motif, devoid of the original sense of wonder.
This paper describes the optimal current-control of a permanent magnet synchronous motor by the use of robust and simple current controllers, based upon the analytical procedure known as the inverse LQ (ILQ) design method. The ILQ design method is a strategy for finding the optimal gains based on pole assignment without solving the Riccati equation. It is very important to keep the motor in robust servo-lock. By experiments and simulations, we will show that the ILQ optimal servo-system with servo-lock is more insensitive at low speeds to variations in armature inductance than the standard PI servo-system. Variations in armature inductance have the greatest influence on the responses of a servo-system.
This paper describes the optimal current-control of a permanent magnet synchronous motor by the use of robust and simple current controllers, based upon the analytical procedure known as the inverse LQ (ILQ) design method. The ILQ design method is a strategy for finding the optimal gains based on pole assignment without solving the Riccati equation. It is very important to keep the motor in robust servo-lock. By experiments and simulations, we will show that the ILQ optimal servo-system with servo-lock is more insensitive at low speeds to variations in armature inductance than the standard PI servo-system. Variations in armature inductance have the greatest influence on the responses of a servo-system.<br/>