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Purpose: Given the importance of evaluating the severity of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms and outcomes after treatment, several questionnaires have been developed to evaluate OAB patients. However, only limited questionnaires are available in Korea for use with Korean patients. Therefore, this study aimed to develop Korean versions of OAB questionnaires through a rigorous linguistic validation process. Methods: The Indevus Urgency Severity Scale, Urgency Perception Scale, Urgency Severity Scale, and Patient Perception of Intensity of Urgency Scale underwent translation and linguistic validation. The linguistic validation procedure consisted of permission for translation, forward translations, reconciliation, back-translation, cognitive debriefing, and proofreading. Two independent bilingual translators translated the original version of each questionnaire, and a panel then discussed and reconciled the 2 initial translations. Next, a third independent bilingual translator performed a backward translation of the reconciled version into English. Five Korean patients diagnosed with OAB were interviewed for cognitive debriefing. Results: Each item of the questionnaires was translated into 2 Korean versions in the forward translation process. Terms such as ‘urgency' and ‘wetting' were translated into ordinary language by the translators and adjusted by the panel members to more conceptually equivalent terms in a medical context. In the back-translation process, the panel made a few changes regarding details based on a comparison of the back-translated and original versions. During the cognitive debriefing process, 5 patients provided a few pieces of feedback on the naturalness of the wording of the questionnaires, but generally agreed on the translated terms. Conclusions: In this study, the panel produced a successful linguistic validation of Korean versions of multiple OAB questionnaires, which can be utilized to evaluate the severity and treatment outcomes of OAB.
Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the large display panel (LDP) in the main control room (MCR) of APR1400 nuclear power plant. A LDP presents the operational information that MCR crew members have to perceive immediately during urgent situations. Background: A LDP can provide the shared situation awareness to MCR crew members, support their pattern recognition, and finally improve their team performance. Therefore, a LDP has to be deliberately designed on the basis of ergonomics and in consideration of teamwork. At the same time, its design concept and technical specification should follow the requirements of the license regulations on LDP. Method: By reviewing the related regulation requirements, display methods & approaches, and various ergonomic guidelines on LDP, the LDP of APR1400 was evaluated ergonomically. Results: APR1400 has a traditional P&ID mimic type LDP. It has strong points in the aspects of supporting metal models and improving pattern recognition. However, it shows weak points on the volume and display format of dynamic information in order to assist MCR crew members to mitigate the events in abnormal situations. Conclusion: The LDP of APR1400 needs some design improvements about display methods and approach.
Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate and to improve the alternatives of preventing human errors caused by insufficient distinction between two units side by side in the Korean Standard Nuclear Plant plus (KSNP+) that has a common compound building of the two units. Background: The equipment rooms of two units in the compound building of KSNP+ was arranged for line symmetry, so the possibility of human error from shortage of unit distinction has been raised. Method: We evaluated the alternative of human error prevention proposed at the stage of plant construction by research on the actual local condition, preference survey and setting an example on the spot. And then we searched the alternative of human error prevention during plant operation by benchmarking and administrative process review. Results: The method of color coding to improve unit distinction was revised from designer-centered to user-centered, and the 72 places to need color coding were founded. The 4 types of temporary extraneous matter and fixture to improve unit distinction were devised, and the 84 places to need them during plant operation were founded. Conclusion: The possibility of human errors in the compound building of KSNP+ could be minimized by color coding and the 4 types of extraneous matter and fixture to improve unit distinction. Application: The color coding was recently applied in the Shin-Kori 1 & 2 units, and the temporary extraneous matter and fixture will be applied.
Objective: The aim of this study is to review the automation level, to grasp the needs for improvement of automation, and to confirm the ergonomic weak points of the CPS (Computerized Procedure System) in APR1400 NPP (Nuclear Power Plant). Background: The CPS in automation level 2'nd should be able to provide crew members in a main control room with the specific information necessary for decision making and operating step performing in order to diminish operation task burden especially in an emergency situation. Method: On the basis of the experience of emergency operation procedures validation, APR1400 CPS emergency operating procedures were ergonomically evaluated about their capability and the needs on automation. Results: APR1400 has a CPS of automation level 2'nd in design. CPS EOPs (Emergency Operating Procedures) has a weak point in informing operators of the timing to perform some CASs (Continuously Applied Steps) due to lack of logics or algorithms on the CASs. It is needed to make the format of APR1400 emergency operating guidelines, the technical basic documents of EOPs, computerized. Conclusion: APR1400 CPS needs an improvement on its applicability of logics and algorithms in EOPs.
Background/Aims: There are several methods for obtaining tissue samples to diagnose malignant biliary strictures during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). However, each method has only limited sensitivity. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a combined triple-tissue sampling (TTS) method (on-site bile aspiration cytology, brush cytology, and forceps biopsy). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 168 patients with suspicious malignant biliary strictures who underwent double-tissue sampling (DTS; n=121) or TTS (n=47) via ERCP at our institution from 2004 to 2011. Results: Among the 168 patients reviewed, 117 patients (69.6%) were eventually diagnosed with malignancies. The diagnostic sensitivity for cancer was significantly higher in the TTS group than the DTS group (85.0% vs 64.9%, respectively; p=0.022). Furthermore, the combination of brush cytology and forceps biopsy was superior to the other method combinations in the DTS group. With respect to cancer type (cholangiocarcinoma vs noncholangiocarcinoma), interestingly, the diagnostic sensitivity was higher for cholangiocarcinoma in the TTS group than the DTS group (100% vs 69.4%, respectively; p<0.001) but not for the noncholangiocarcinoma patients (57.1% vs 57.1%, respectively). Conclusions: TTS can provide an improved diagnostic accuracy in suspicious malignant biliary strictures, particularly for cholangiocarcinoma. (Gut Liver 2014;8:669-673)
Six plant essential oils, vanillin, and their mixtures were tested for repellent activities against a dengue virus vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Their repellency was verified with two conditions: different doses and an addition of vanillin. Among the plant essential oils, lemongrass, lemoneucalyptus and xanthoxylum oils were selected as the potential oils for tertiary mixtures. In bioassays using tertiary mixtures with two essential oils with vanillin, the composition of 1:3:1 (v/v/w) consisted of lemongrass oil, xanthoxylum oil and vanillin provided 270 min-CPT. As a practical application into spatial repellent, the mixture of 1:1:1 formulation containing lemongrass oil, xanthoxylum oil, and vanillin (v/v/w) was enclosed into the Viscopearl, porous cellulose beads that provide gradual release of volatile compounds. We composed this Viscopearl into a module and installed into the air conditioner. Apparently, repellent activity was shown that average repellency of 83.5% was observed for an hour through the chamber test. We confirmed via GC-chromatogram that linalool, geraniol, citral and vanillin were the main compounds of our oil mixture. Our study indicates that personal repellents were possibility applicable to spatial repellents.