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Stream ecosystems are closely related to many human activities. Therefore, streams are affected by anthropogenic disturbances such as riverine development and gravel-mining as well as deterioration of water quality. The goal of this study was to elucidate the recolonization process of the macroinvertebrate community after a small-scale anthropogenic disturbance. Field studies were conducted at three sites in a natural stream. The number of recolonizing species tended to increase slightly over time, exceeding the total species number of the control. Ephemeroptera contributed the most to shaping the recolonizing pattern of the entire community. From the result of changes in dominant species, the early recolonizers of each site were the species that showed more frequent occurrence particulary at each sites. But the late recolonizers are Chironomidae at all the sites commonly. This result implies that the actual differences exist among the recolonizing trends of each benthic macroinvertebrate taxon. Collector-gatherers and scrapers comprised about 70% of the recolonizing species. These results indicate that the recolonizing process of an aquatic community after an artificial disturbance depends on the environmental conditions(particularly substratum composition or organic pollution) of the habitat.
Background: Filler rhinoplasty is a popular procedure in the Asian population. Although it successfully raises the nasal dorsum, unlike surgical rhinoplasty, it has limited ability to produce a significant change in the caudal aspect of the nose. To overcome the weakness of filler rhinoplasty, threads have been added. Objectives: We aimed to see the combined effect of filler/ threads in rhinoplasty. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on the filler + threads rhinoplasty cases, wehre wedge shaped PDO threads were adopted. A total of 15 Korean patients were included. All participants underwent a single treatment session. The results were assessed objectively using serial photography and subjectively based on the patients' satisfaction scores. Complications were also recorded. Results: A total of 15 patients (1 male and 14 female) were reviewed. Their mean age was 34.5 years (range 21-56). All patients (100%) found the results to be satisfactory. Consensus ratings by two independent dermatologists showed that the objective outcomes at 2-month follow-up were very-much improved (53.3%), much improved (33.3%) and improved (13.3%). The incidence of complications was low and the complications were minor. Conclusion: Wedge shaped PDO sutures are a promising adjunct for filler rhinoplasty.
Background: It is occasionally difficult to distinguish melanocytic lesions, especially acral nevi, spitz nevi and dysplastic nevi, from malignant melanoma. Immunohistochemical tests are necessary to differentiate these melanocytic lesions. Insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP-3), a member of the insulin-like growth factor mRNA-binding protein family, is expressed in most of malignant melanoma. Objectives: We sought to investigate the expression of IMP-3 in a spectrum of cutaneous melanocytic lesions to assess a diagnostic utility of IMP-3 in melanocytic lesions. Methods: IMP-3 immunostain was performed in total 204 melanocytic lesions. The specimen included 106 malignant melanoma, 75 acral nevi, 6 spitz nevi, 3 dysplastic nevi, and 14 other benign nevi. Results: All acral nevi, spitz nevi, dysplastic nevi and other benign nevi were negative for IMP-3. On the other hands, IMP-3 positivity was observed in 9/10 melanoma in situ, 3/4 lentigo maligna melanoma, 7/9 superficial spreading melanoma, 19/19 nodular melanoma and 64/64 acral lentiginous melanoma. Conclusion: Our data suggests that IMP-3 expression can be a reliable diagnostic biomarker to distinguish MM from benign melanocytic lesions.
This study presents a sanitary sewer management decision-making framework incorporating demand forecasting and life cycle cost analysis. The framework provides the asset managers with an alternative approach in sewer management. It is designed to allow asset managers to better allocate limited funds for maintenance and rehabilitation by identifying possible problematic sewers and devising a maintenance plan to prevent costly sewer failures. Sewer demand forecasting model is developed using an artificial neural network. The forecasted sewer demand is then used to identify "critical" areas, where the current hydraulic capacity is less than the forecasted sewer demand. In such areas, an optimal maintenance and rehabilitation strategy is developed through the application of probabilistic dynamic programming in conjunction with Markov chain deterioration modeling.
Seung Hoon Choi(최승훈), Seok Joo Han(한석주), Myungsoo Kim(김명수), Jongsei Park(박종세), Jin Su Kim(김진수), Duk Sun Ahn(안덕선), Chul Lee(이철), Yong Won Park(박용원), Chan Ho Song(송찬호), Eui Ho Hwang(황의호) 대한외과학회 1997 Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research Vol.52 No.1