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Members of Sparassidae of Araneae are small to large sized (3-25mm) huntsman spiders (Jäger 1999). In Korea, there have been recorded 5 species, Heteropoda venatoria (Linnaeus, 1767), Micrommata virescens (Clerck, 1757), Sinopoda koreana (Paik, 1968), Sinopoda stellatops Jäger & Ono, 2002 and Thelcticopis severa (L.Koch, 1875), belonging to 3 genera (Paik, 1968, 1978, Namkung, 2002, 2003, You and Kim, 2002). In the course of survey for the spider fauna of Mt. Sobaek (1,439m elevation) located in Punggi-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do during 2007 to 2008, one of the 16 National Parks in Korea, 2 matured females of Sinopoda forcipata (Karsch,1881) which has been known to distribute in China and Japan were collected by pitfall traps. S.forcipata is a newly recorded species for the Korean spider fauna. Female of S.forcipata was described with some natural history including vertical distribution at mountain and seasonal fluctuation, and compared distribution and habitat of 3 Korean Sinopoda species referring former reports from Korea.
In this paper, the feedforward control with least mean square (LMS) adaptive algorithm is proposed and examined to reduce rotating error by runout of an active magnetic bearing system. Using eddy-current type gap sensors for control, the electrical runout caused by non-uniform material properties of sensor target produces rotational error amplified in feedback control loop, so this runout should be eliminated to increase rotating accuracy. The adaptive feedforward controller is designed and examined its tracking performances and stability numerically with established frequency response function. The designed feedforward controller was applied to a grinding spindle system which is manufactured with a 5.5 ㎾ internal motor and 5-axis active magnetic bearing system including 5 eddy current gap sensors which have approximately 15~30 ㎛ of electrical runout, According to the experimental results, the error signal in radial bearings is reduced to less than 5 ㎛ when it is rotating up to 50,000 rpm due to applying the feedforward control for first order harmonic frequency, and corresponding vibration of the spindle is also removed.
Plasma-induced damage to low-k dielectric layers is a key issue in developing multi-level interconnection technology based on copper and low-k dielectrics. Changes in the chemical composition of the dielectric films after plasma processes often increase the dielectric constants of low-k materials. In this work, SiOCH low-k dielectric films were studied and etched by using a C₄F8+N₂ plasma for patterning. Nitrided fluorocarbon polymer films were observed after C₄F8+N₂ plasma etching. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to monitor the chemical bonding changes of the polymer films in terms of N₂ content in the C₄F8+N₂ mixture. With 40 \% N₂ in the mixture, the etch condition was optimized for high etch rate and selectivity. After photoresist stripping by using a N₂ plasma and removal of nitrided fluorocarbon polymer by HF dipping, the SiOCH layer had recovered its original dielectric constant of 2.80 without any pattern size change.
Popping of heavily implanted photoresist during plasma stripping occurs during the conventional ashing process using oxygen radicals at the fixed temperature range of 250 C or higher. We introduce preheating of wafers in air at atmospheric pressure prior to the ashing step. They do not suffer from low ashing rate or substrate damage. It is found that this pre-heating step accelerates outgassing from the bulk of the photoresist without popping. Since heat transfer from hot wafer stage to wafer is better in air than in vacuum, it also increases wafer temperature faster, and thus also the ashing rate. In this paper, we monitor the surface-morphology and chemical-bonding changes before and after heat-treatment by SEM and XPS, respectively, and find that heating in vacuum increases amorphous carbons in the photoresist surface more than heating in air.
For the seismic design of bridges in Korea classified as the low to moderate seismic zones, the design concepts provided in the Standard Specification for Highway Bridges, Division I-A: Seismic Design, are adopted, which is basically developed for the strong seismic zones by AASHITO. Accordingly, the design procedures provided for the low to moderate seismic zones are simplified too much to fulfill the purpose of the seismic design. In this paper the design procedures given for the low to moderate seismic zones in the Standard are summarized and discussed in view of the seismic design purpose. From the discussion results some revisions are proposed as conclusions for the reasonable a, pp.ication of the Standard for bridges located in the low to moderate seismic zones.