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        열수 침지 처리가 치콘 절단면의 적변 억제에 미치는 영향

        정현진(Hyun Jin Jung), 강호민(Ho-Min Kang) 한국원예학회 2014 원예과학기술지 Vol.32 No.3

        치콘의 판매 중 상품성 저하의 원인이 되는 치콘 절단면 적변 현상을 억제하기 위해 열수 침지 실험을 실시하였다. 열수침지처리로는 대조구(20℃ 1분)과 38℃에서의 4분, 8분, 42℃에서의 2분, 4분, 그리고 45℃에서의 1분, 2분을 두었다. 색차계로 측정한 △a<SUP>*</SUP>과 △h값은 42℃ 2분 처리에서는 가장 낮게 유지되었으며, 42℃의 2분과 45℃의 1분 처리구에서는 대조구보다 유의 있는 낮은 값을 나타내었다. 10℃에 저장 6일째 관능 평가한 절단면의 적변지수는 42℃의 2분과 4분 처리 그리고 45℃의 1분 처리에서 낮았다. 적변의 원인 물질이 되는 총페놀함량을 저장 6일째 조사하였는데, 이 또한 절단면의 색변화가 적었던 42℃의 2분과 4분 처리 그리고 45℃의 1분 처리에서 낮았다. 페놀물질 합성에 관여하는 PAL 활성은 42℃ 2분 처리에서는 가장 낮은 값을 보였으며, 42℃의 2분와 45℃의 1분 처리구에서는 대조구보다 유의 있는 낮은 수치를 보였다. 그러나 가장 강한 열처리였던 45℃의 2분 처리에서는 절단면의 적변이 대조구와 유사한 수준으로 진행되었으며, 페놀함량과 PAL 활성도 대조구와 차이가 없었다. 공기에 노출된 절단조직에서 페놀물질을 산화시켜 적변을 일으키는 PPO의 활성은 42℃와 45℃의 모든 처리구에서 낮았는데, 특히 다른 조사항목에서는 모두 대조구와 유사한 수준을 보였던 45℃의 2분 처리구가 가장 낮은 수치를 보였다. 또한 각 조사항목간 상관관계에서, PPO를 제외한 모든 조사항목간에서는 대부분 고도의 상관관계를 보였으며, 특히 관능평가한 적변지수와 △h값은 r = 0.927<SUP>***</SUP>를, PAL 활성과 총 페놀물질 함량과는 r = 0.942<SUP>***</SUP>의 고도의 상관관계를 보였다. Hot water dipping test was conducted for chicon to restrict red discoloration of its basal part which impairs the product value during sales. Hot water dipping treatment was given to chicon for 4 min and for 8 min at 38℃ and for 2 min and 4 min at 42℃, and for 1 min and 2 min at 45℃, along with control (for one min at 20℃). The red discoloration indices of basal part of chicon during sensory evaluation on the sixth day of storage under the storage temperature at 10℃ was lower at 42℃ for 2 min, 42℃ for 4 min and 45℃ for 1 min treatments. The color change value of the basal part in chicon measured by colorimeter showed that the lowest △a<SUP>*</SUP> and △h were maintained in the basal part of chicon treated at 42℃ for 2 min. Whereas, color changes in 42℃ for 2 min and 45℃ for 1 min treatments were significantly low as compared with that of control. The contents of total phenolic compounds which are the substances that cause red discoloration of basal part in chicon were lowest at 42℃ for 2 min, 42℃ for 4 min and 45℃ for 1 min treatments. The activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) resposible for in the synthesis of phenolic substances was the least in 42℃ for 2 min treatment. Whereas, PAL activity of the chicons treated a t 42℃ for 2 min and at 4 5℃ for 1 min were significantly lower than t hat of c ontrol. However, r ed d iscoloration was progressed as similar level with that of control in the basal part of chicon at 45℃ for 2 min. The contents of total phenolic compounds and PAL activity in this treatment were not significantly different from those in control. The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity which causes red discoloration of cut tissues was low in all the treatments including 42℃ and 45℃ treatment at which no inhibition effects of the red discoloration of basal part of chicon were observed. When the correlation coefficient between each investigated index was tested, most of them showed high correlation except the PPO activity and particularly and the red discoloration index and sensory evaluation △h values, and PAL activity and total phenolic compounds content were r = 0.927<SUP>**</SUP>, and r = 0.942<SUP>**</SUP>, respectively.

      • 무용전공학생의 호흡순환기능 및 혈중젖산농도에 관한 비교연구

        이종희,김말애,손흥기,김민정 경희대학교 체육과학연구소 1996 體育學論文集 Vol.24 No.-

        The purpose of this study is to investigate the cardiovascular function and blood lactate in female by part of dance major in university. For this purpose a total of 32 female students, attending university K in Seoul participated in the study. The subjects were selected randomly 24 female students majored in dance in university(Korean dance: 8, Modern dance: 8, Ballet: 8), and 8 regular female students, who did not have any dance experience. The results of the study were as follows; 1.Cardiovascular function 1)In factors of rest HR showed in Control group 76.50±3.74 beats/min, Korean dance group 72.13±4.85 beats/min, Modern dance group 71.50±4.93 beats/min, Ballet dance group 68.8±4.19beats/min. Among these group there was significantly(p〈.05). 2)In factors of HRmax showed in Korean dance group 200.63土4.78 beats/min, , Ballet dance group 198.00±6.28beats/min, Modern dance group 197.63±6.65beats/min Control group 189.75±10.51beats/min. Among these group there was significantly(p〈.05). 3)In factors of VO2/kg showed in Ballet dance group 44.46±4.09㎖/min, Korean dance group 43.95±2.95㎖/min, Modern dance group 40.73±3.26㎖/min, Control group 34.33±2.28㎖/min. Among these group there was significantly(p〈.001). 4)In factors of VCO2 showed in Korean dance group 84.31ℓ/min, Modern dance group 2.60±0.44ℓ/min, Ballet dance group 2.52±0.23ℓ/min, Control group 2.23±0.34ℓ/min. Among these group there was not significantly. 5)In factors of art-out time showed in Korean dance group 931±52.92sec, Modern dance group 916.75±40.96sec, Ballet dance group 908.88±28.44sec, Control group 809.38±70.02sec. Among these group there was significantly(p〈.001). 2.Blood lactate 1)In factors of rest time blood lactate showed in Ballet dance group 1.17±0.26.mM/ℓ, Control group 1.11±0.21mM/ℓ , Korean dance group 1.09±0.28mM/ℓ , Modern dance group 1.06±0.33mM/ℓ Among these group there was not significantly. 2)In factors of all-out time blood lactate showed in Control group 9.14±0.92mM/ℓ, Ballet dance Broup 7.79±1.14mM/ℓ, Korean dance group 7.67±1.51mM/ℓ, Modern dance group 7.42±1.18mM/ℓ, Among these group there was not significantly. 3)In factors of recovery 3 minute blood lactate showed in Control group 9.52±0.94mM/ℓ, Ballet dance group 7.68±1.73mM/ℓ, Modern dance group 7,61±0.89mM/ℓ, Korean dance group 7.52±1.78mM/ℓ. Among these group there was significantly(p〈.05). 4) In factors of recovery 5 minute blood lactate showed in Control group 9.91±1.22mM/ℓ, Korean dance group 7.97±2.38mM/ℓ, Ballet dance group 7.86±1.86mM/ℓ, Modern dance group 7.51±1.10mM/ℓ, Among these group there was significantly(p〈.05). 5)In factors of recovery 10 minute Control group 8.99±0.97mM/ℓ, Ballet dance group 6.98±1.65mM/ℓ, Korean dance group 6.96±2.08mM/ℓ, Modern dance group 6.78±1.38mM/ℓ, Among these group there was significantly(p〈.05).

      • 무용전공학생의 호흡순환기능 및 혈줄젖산농도에 관한 비교연구

        이종희(Lee Jong-Hee), 김말애(Kim Mal-Ae), 손흥기(Sohn Heung-Ki), 김민정(Kim Min-Jung) 경희대학교 스포츠과학연구원 1996 체육학논문집 Vol.24 No.-

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

          The purpose of this study is to investigate the cardiovascular function and blood lactate of female by part of dance major in university.<BR>  For this purpose a total of 32 female students, attending university K in Seoul participated in the study. The subjects were selected randomly 24 female students majored in dance in university(Korean dance: 8, Modern dance: 8, Ballet: 8), and 8 regular female students, who did not have any dance experience.<BR>  The results of the study were as follows;<BR>  1. Cardiovascular function<BR>   1) In factors of rest HR showed in Control group 76.50±3.74 beats/min, Korean dance group 72.13±4.85 beats/min, Modern dance group 71.50±4.93 beats/min, Ballet dance group 68.88±4.19beats/min. Among these group there was significantly(p<.05).<BR>   2) In factors of HRmax showed in Korean dance group 200.63±4.78 beats/min, Ballet dance group 198.00±6.28beats/min, Modern dance group 197.63±6.65beats/min Control group 189.75±10.51beats/min. Among these group there was significantly(p<.05).<BR>   3) In factors of ?O2㎏ showed in Ballet dance group 44.46±4.09㎖/min, Korean dance group 43.95±2.95㎖/min, Modern dance group 40.73±3.36㎖/min, Control group 34.33±2.28㎖/min. Among these group there was significantly(p<.001).<BR>   4) In factors of ?CO2 showed in Korean dance group 84.31 ℓ/min, Modern dance group 2.60±0.44 ℓ/min, Ballet dance group 2.52±0.23 ℓ/min, Control group 2.23±0.34 ℓ/min. Among these group there was not significantly.<BR>   5) In factors of all-out time showed in Korean dance group 931±52.92sec, Modern dance group 916.75±40.96sec, Ballet dance group 908.88±28.44sec, Control group 809.38±70.02sec. Among these group there was significantly(p<.001).<BR>  2. Blood lactate<BR>   1) In factors of rest time blood lactate showed in Ballet dance group 1.17±0.26mM/ℓ, Control group 1.11±0.21mM/ℓ, Korean dance group 1.09±0.28mM/ℓ, Modern dance group 1.06±0.33mM/ℓ. Among these group there was not significantly.<BR>   2) in factors of all-out time blood lactate showed in Control group 9.14±0.92mM/ℓ, Ballet dance group 7.79±1.14mM/ℓ, Korean dance group 7.67±1.51mM/ℓ, Modern dance group 7.42±1.18mM/ℓ. Among these group there was not significantly.<BR>   3) In factors of recovery 3 minute blood lactate showed in Control group 9.52±0.94mM/ℓ, Ballet dance group 7.68±1.73mM/ℓ, Modern dance group 7.61±0.89mM/ℓ, Korean dance group 7.52±1.78mM/ℓ. Among these group there was significantly(p<.05).<BR>   4) In factors of recovery 5 minute blood lactate showed in Control group 9.91±1.22mM/ℓ. Korean dance group 7.97±2.38mM/ℓ, Ballet dance group 7.86±1.86mM/ℓ, Modern dance group 75.1±1.10mM/ℓ. Among these group there was significantly(p<.05).<BR>   5) In factors of recovery 10 minute Control group 8.99±0.97mM/ℓ, Ballet dance group 6.98±1.65mM/ℓ, Korean dance group 6.96±2.08mM/ℓ, Modern dance group 6.78±1.38mM/ℓ. Among these group there was significantly(p<.05).

      • KCI등재

        가압가열 및 Microwave 처리가 생면의 품질에 미치는 영향

        박시우,김꽃봉우리,김민지,강보경,박원민,김보람,박홍민,최정수,최호덕,안동현,Bark,,Si-Woo,Kim,,Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri,Kim,,Min-Ji,Kang,,Bo-Kyeong,Pak,,Won-Min,Kim,,Bo-Ram,Park,,Hong-Min,Choi,,Jung-Su,Choi,,Ho-Duk,Ahn,,Dong-Hyun 한국식품영양학회 2013 韓國食品營養學會誌 Vol.26 No.4

        중력분을 이용하여 제면한 후 가압가열, microwave 및 가압가열과 microwave 병행 처리한 후, 생면 및 삶은 면의 품질에 미치는 영향에 대하여 알아보았다. 생면의 pH는 microwave 1 min 처리구에서 무처리구와 유의적인 차이를 보이지 않았으며, 수분 함량은 autoclave 50 min 처리구에서 무처리구와 유의적인 차이를 보이지 않았고, 그 외의 처리구에서는 모두 수분 함량이 감소함을 확인하였다. 면의 색도 측정 결과는 명도는 무처리구에 비해 모든 처리구에서 감소하였으며, 적색도는 microwave 1 min 처리구는 감소한 반면, 나머지 처리구는 증가하였다. 황색도는 autoclave 50 min 처리구와 autoclave 50 min/microwave 1 min 병행 처리구에서 증가한 반면, 나머지 물리적 처리구에서는 감소하였다. 삶은 면의 색도에서는 명도, 적색도, 황색도 모두에서 무처리구에 비하여 물리적 처리구에서 증가한 값을 나타내었다. 물성 측정 결과는 경도, 부착성, 응집성, 검성, 복원성에서 무처리구와 비교시 microwave 1 min 처리구는 유의적으로 감소하였으며, 그 외 처리구에서는 유의적으로 증가한 값을 나타내었다. 탄력성과 전단력은 모든 처리구에서 유의적으로 증가하였으며, 인장력은 가압가열 30 min 처리구와 무처리구가 유의적인 차이를 보이지 않았으나, 나머지 물리적 처리구에서는 유의적으로 증가하였다. 관능 평가 결과는 생면의 경우 색 항목에서 물리적 처리구들이 유의적으로 낮은 점수를 받았다. 맛, 질감, 향 항목에서는 무처리구와 물리적 처리구간 유의적 차이를 보이지 않았다. 전체적인 기호도에서는 microwave 1 min 처리구가 가장 높은 점수를 얻었으며, 가압가열(50 min)과 microwave(1 min) 병행 처리구는 무처리구와 비슷한 점수를 얻었다. 따라서 제면 후 가압가열 및 microwave 처리가 생면 및 삶은 면에 있어서 색과 질감 항목을 보완, 개선시킨다면 알러겐성이 저감화된 면을 제품화하는데 적합할 것으로 사료되어진다. This study was conducted to determine the effects of physical treatments for quality of wet noodles. Noodles were being tried with a microwave (for 1 min), an autoclave (for 30 or 50 min), and both autoclave and microwave (for 30/1 min or 50/1 min). The results showed that the pH levels were slightly decreased after treatments of autoclave and autoclave/microwave. The moisture contents were considerably decreased as compared to the control except autoclave (50 min). After all treatments, the lightness was decreased in all samples, but, redness was increased (except microwave) and the yellowness was increased after autoclave (50 min) and autoclave/microwave (50/1 min). Texture was increased as compared to the control except microwave. In the sensory evaluation, the noodles treated with microwave, autoclave (50 min), and autoclave/ microwave (50/1 min) showed a high score in overall preference. From these results, both the autoclave and microwave methods can be applied to the wet noodles without diminishing its quality to a great extent.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Coconut-derived D-xylose affects postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy individuals

        Yun,Jung,Bae,Youn-Kyung,Bak,Bumsik,Kim,Min-Sun,Kim,Jin-Hee,Lee,Mi-Kyung,Sung 한국영양학회 2011 Nutrition Research and Practice Vol.5 No.6

        Metabolic alterations including postprandial hyperglycemia have been implicated in the development of obesity-related diseases. Xylose is a sucrase inhibitor suggested to suppress the postprandial glucose surge. The objectives of this study were to assess the inhibitory effects of two different concentrations of xylose on postprandial glucose and insulin responses and to evaluate its efficacy in the presence of other macronutrients. Randomized double-blind cross-over studies were conducted to examine the effect of D-xylose on postprandial glucose and insulin response following the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). In study 1, the overnight-fasted study subjects (n=49) consumed a test sucrose solution (50 g sucrose in 130 ml water) containing 0, 5, or 7.5 g D-xylose powder. In study 2, the overnight-fasted study subjects (n=50) consumed a test meal (50 g sucrose in a 60 g muffin and 200 ml sucrose-containing solution). The control meal provided 64.5 g of carbohydrates, 4.5 g of fat, and 10 g of protein. The xylose meal was identical to the control meal except 5 g of xylose was added to the muffin mix. In study 1, the 5 g xylose-containing solutions exhibited significantly lower area under the glucose curve (AUCg) and area under the insulin curve (AUCi) values for 0-15 min (P<0.0001, P<0.0001), 0-30 min (P<0.0001, P<0.0001), 0-45 min (P<0.0001, P<0.0001), 0-60 min (P<0.0001, P<0.0001), 0-90 min (P<0.0001, P<0.0001) and 0-120 min (P=0.0071, P=0.0016). In study 2, the test meal exhibited significantly lower AUCg and AUCi values for 0-15 min (P<0.0001, P<0.0001), 0-30 min (P<0.0001, P<0.0001), 0-45 min (P<0.0001, P=0.0005), 0-60 min (P=0.0002, P=0.0025), and 0-90 min (P=0.0396, P=0.0246). In conclusion, xylose showed an acute suppressive effect on the postprandial glucose and insulin surges.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Coconut-derived D-xylose affects postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy individuals

        Yun,,Jung-Bae,Bak,,Youn-Kyung,Kim,,Bum-Sik,Kim,,Min-Sun,Lee,,Jin-Hee,Sung,,Mi-Kyung The Korean Nutrition Society 2011 Nutrition Research and Practice Vol. No.

        Metabolic alterations including postprandial hyperglycemia have been implicated in the development of obesity-related diseases. Xylose is a sucrase inhibitor suggested to suppress the postprandial glucose surge. The objectives of this study were to assess the inhibitory effects of two different concentrations of xylose on postprandial glucose and insulin responses and to evaluate its efficacy in the presence of other macronutrients. Randomized double-blind cross-over studies were conducted to examine the effect of D-xylose on postprandial glucose and insulin response following the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). In study 1, the overnight-fasted study subjects (n = 49) consumed a test sucrose solution (50 g sucrose in 130 ml water) containing 0, 5, or 7.5 g D-xylose powder. In study 2, the overnight-fasted study subjects (n = 50) consumed a test meal (50 g sucrose in a 60 g muffin and 200 ml sucrose-containing solution). The control meal provided 64.5 g of carbohydrates, 4.5 g of fat, and 10 g of protein. The xylose meal was identical to the control meal except 5 g of xylose was added to the muffin mix. In study 1, the 5 g xylose-containing solutions exhibited significantly lower area under the glucose curve (AUCg) and area under the insulin curve (AUCi) values for 0-15 min (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001), 0-30 min (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001), 0-45 min (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001), 0-60 min (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001), 0-90 min (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001) and 0-120 min (P = 0.0071, P = 0.0016). In study 2, the test meal exhibited significantly lower AUCg and AUCi values for 0-15 min (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001), 0-30 min (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001), 0-45 min (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0005), 0-60 min (P = 0.0002, P = 0.0025), and 0-90 min (P = 0.0396, P = 0.0246). In conclusion, xylose showed an acute suppressive effect on the postprandial glucose and insulin surges.

      • KCI등재

        볶음 조건에 따른 발효 콩의 이화학적 특성 연구

        유민정 ( Min Jung You ), 최남순 ( Nam-soon Choi ) 한국식생활문화학회 2016 韓國食生活文化學會誌 Vol.31 No.6

        This study was investigated the difference in the quality characteristics of the fermented soybean roasted with different conditions for making chungyukjang. Roasted condition of soybean was decided by pre-test, which was on 140°C for 21 min, 180°C 9.5 min, and 220°C 6 min. Fermented soybean with different roasted condition and conventionally made cheonggukjang were measured for proximate composition, color, pH, amino nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, free sugar and amino acids. The lightness and yellowness of soybean fermented by conventional method was higher than those of the fermented soybean with roasted soybean. The contents of free sugar of fermented soybean roasted on 220°C for 6 min (FS220) was the highest among the group and followed by fermented soybean roasted on 180°C for 9.5 min (FS180), 140°C 21 min (FS140) and conventional cheonggukjang (FS0). The contents of total free amino acid was highest on fermented soybean roasted on 140°C for 21 min (FS140) and followed by fermented soybean roasted on 180°C for 9.5 min (FS180), 220°C 6 min (FS220) and conventional cheonggukjang (FS0).

      • KCI등재후보

        RPE 13에서의 12분 걷기테스트를 이용한 적정 운동강도의 타당성

        정은혜(Jung Eun-Hye), 최현민(Choi Hyun-Min), 김종경(Kim Jong-Kyung), 노호성(Nho Ho-Sung) 한국체육과학회 2008 한국체육과학회지 Vol.17 No.1

        The purpose of this study was to examine if a 12-min submaximal treadmill walk test corresponding to a rating of perceived exertion 13 (RPE13) was appropriate to determine exercise intensity. Twenty-seven subjects participated this study, aged from 22 to 26. VO2max, VO2AT and total distance were obtained from a graded exercise test (GXT). Also, VO2 and total distance were obtained during a 12-min submaximal treadmill walk test corresponding to RPE13. The results were obtained as follows: 1) The correlation coefficients between VO2 obtained during a 12-min submaximal treadmill walk test and VO2AT obtained during GXT were statistically significant (r=0.382). 2) The correlation coefficients between VO2 obtained during a 12-min submaximal treadmill walk test and VO2max obtained during GXT were statistically significant (r=0.434). 3) The correlation coefficients between total distance obtained during a 12-min submaximal treadmill walk test and V O2max, VO2AT obtained during GXT were statistically significant (r=0.721, 0.688). 4) The correlation coefficients between VO2 obtained during a 12-min submaximal treadmill walk test and VO2 obtained during RPE13 in GXT were statistically significant (r=0.526). These results suggest that a 12-min submaximal treadmill walk test corresponding to RPE13 is a valid for determining exercise intensity at AT level. Therefore, the 12-min submaximal treadmill walk test corresponding to RPE13 could be a useful for prescribing exercise intensity in the collegiate-student men.

      • KCI등재

        원저 : 심정지 후 경도 저체온 유도를 위한 일개 종합적인 혼합 냉각방법의 냉각 효율성과 안전성

        김효준 ( Hyo Joon Kim ), 김영민 ( Young Min Kim ), 김수현 ( Soo Hyun Kim ), 윤준성 ( Chun Song Youn ), 오상훈 ( Sang Hoon Oh ), 김현정 ( Hyun Jung Kim ), 박규남 ( Kyu Nam Park ) 대한응급의학회 2013 大韓應急醫學會誌 Vol.24 No.5

        Purpose: To evaluate the cooling efficacy and safety of a comprehensive combination method for cooling induction in post-cardiac arrest patients. Methods: Adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients cooled using combination methods in a tertiary teaching hospital from January 2009 to June 2011were enrolled in the study. Patients were placed into one of two groups: 1) a typical combination (combination I) group, in which cold saline infusion, ice bags,and endovascular cooling were applied, and 2) acomprehensive combination (combination II) group, in which cold saline infusion, ice bags, endovascular cooling, skin exposure, and fanning with ice-water massage were applied. The time from cardiac arrest, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), and cooling start to 34°C, as well asadverse events during cooling, were recorded. Results: Forty-two out of 125(34%) of OHCA patients with ROSC were cooled usingcombination methods. There were no differences in baseline characteristics between the two combination groups. The time [median (IQR)] from arrest, ROSC, and cooling to 34°C of the combination II group were significantly shorter than those of the combina combination I group [215 min(range 156~270 min) vs. 320 min (range 263-385) for median IQR, p=.002; 189 min (range 135-220 min) vs. 288 min (range 227-358 min) for ROSC, p=.002; 150min (range 120-180 min) vs. 210 min (range 180-260 min) for cooling to 34°C, p=.030, respectively]. There were no statistical differences in adverse events during and after cooling induction between the two groups. Conclusion: A comprehensive combination cooling method is feasible and capable of reducing the induction time for endovascular cooling in post-cardiac arrest patients.

      • 3D 프린터를 이용한 Customized Bolus 제작에 관한 연구

        정상민,양진호,이승현,김진욱,염두석,Jung,,Sang,Min,Yang,,Jin,Ho,Lee,,Seung,Hyun,Kim,,Jin,Uk,Yeom,,Du,Seok 대한방사선치료학회 2015 대한방사선치료학회지 Vol.27 No.1

        목 적 : 3D 프린터는 입력한 도면을 바탕으로 3차원의 입체 모델을 만들어 낼 수 있는 장비이다. 이러한 특징을 이용하여 방사선치료시 bolus 사용으로 인한 피부와 bolus 사이의 air gap을 최소화 할 수 있는 bolus 제작이 가능하다. 이에 본 연구에서는 3D 프린터를 이용하여 customized bolus를 제작하여 air gap과 target 선량을 상품화된 1 cm bolus와 비교하고자 한다. 대상 및 방법 : 왼쪽 chest wall에 돌출된 종양이 있는 RANDO phantom을 CT 모의치료기를 이용하여 영상 획득 후, CT DICOM 파일을 3D 프린터에 필요한 STL 파일로 변환시켰다. 이것을 이용하여 치료부위의 체표윤곽과 일치하면서 1 cm 두께를 유지하는 customized bolus 주형틀을 3D 프린터로 제작한 후 paraffin wax를 녹여 customized bolus를 만들었다. 이렇게 만들어진 customized bolus와 상품화된 1 cm bolus의 air gap을 확인하였고, air gap으로 인한 차이를 Eclipse를 이용하여 치료계획상 $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$와 $V_{95%}$를 비교하였다. 결 과 : customized bolus 제작 기간은 약 3일이 소요되었다. air gap 총 용적은 customized bolus는 평균 $3.9cm^3$, 상품화된 1 cm bolus는 평균 $29.6cm^3$이었다. 상품화된 1 cm bolus를 사용할 때보다 3D 프린터를 이용하여 제작한 customized bolus를 사용하는 것이 air gap을 최소화시켰다. 6 MV photon에서 customized bolus의 $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$, $V_{95%}$는 각각 102.8%, 88.1%, 99.1%, 95.0%, 94.4%이었고, 상품화된 1 cm bolus의 $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$, $V_{95%}$는 101.4%, 92.0%, 98.2%, 95.2%, 95.7%이었다. proton의 경우 customized bolus의 $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$, $V_{95%}$는 각각 104.1%, 84.0%, 101.2%, 95.1%, 99.8%이었고, 상품화된 1 cm bolus의 $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$, $V_{95%}$는 104.8%, 87.9%, 101.5%, 94.9%, 99.9%이었다. 이처럼 치료계획에서 customized bolus와 1 cm bolus 모두 GTV의 선량은 큰 차이를 보이지 않았다. 그러나 GTV에 인접한 정상조직은 customized bolus의 선량이 더 적게 나타났다. 결 론 : 3D 프린터를 이용한 customized bolus가 표면이 일정하지 않은 치료부위에 사용 할 때 air gap을 줄이는 효과를 나타냈다. 그렇지만 상품화된 bolus와 피부 사이에 생기는 air gap은 target에서의 선량의 변화를 일으킬 만큼 많은 양이 아님을 알 수 있었다. 반면 chest wall에서는 air gap이 적을수록 선량이 감소함을 확인 할 수 있었다. customized bolus 제작 기간은 3일이 걸렸고, 고가의 제작비용이 든다는 문제점이 발생하였다. 따라서 3D 프린터 customized bolus의 상용화를 위해서는 저비용이고, bolus 사용으로 적합한 3D 프린터 재료 모색의 필요성이 있다고 사료된다. Purpose : 3D Printers are used to create three-dimensional models based on blueprints. Based on this characteristic, it is feasible to develop a bolus that can minimize the air gap between skin and bolus in radiotherapy. This study aims to compare and analyze air gap and target dose at the branded 1 cm bolus with the developed customized bolus using 3D printers. Materials and Methods : RANDO phantom with a protruded tumor was used to procure images using CT simulator. CT DICOM file was transferred into the STL file, equivalent to 3D printers. Using this, customized bolus molding box (maintaining the 1 cm width) was created by processing 3D printers, and paraffin was melted to develop the customized bolus. The air gap of customized bolus and the branded 1 cm bolus was checked, and the differences in air gap was used to compare $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$ and $V_{95%}$ in treatment plan through Eclipse. Results : Customized bolus production period took about 3 days. The total volume of air gap was average $3.9cm^3$ at the customized bolus. And it was average $29.6cm^3$ at the branded 1 cm bolus. The customized bolus developed by the 3D printer was more useful in minimizing the air gap than the branded 1 cm bolus. In the 6 MV photon, at the customized bolus, $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$, $V_{95%}$ of GTV were 102.8%, 88.1%, 99.1%, 95.0%, 94.4% and the $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$, $V_{95%}$ of branded 1cm bolus were 101.4%, 92.0%, 98.2%, 95.2%, 95.7%, respectively. In the proton, at the customized bolus, $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$, $V_{95%}$ of GTV were 104.1%, 84.0%, 101.2%, 95.1%, 99.8% and the $D_{max}$, $D_{min}$, $D_{mean}$, $D_{95%}$, $V_{95%}$ of branded 1cm bolus were 104.8%, 87.9%, 101.5%, 94.9%, 99.9%, respectively. Thus, in treatment plan, there was no significant difference between the customized bolus and 1 cm bolus. However, the normal tissue nearby the GTV showed relatively lower radiation dose. Conclusion : The customized bolus developed by 3D printers was effective in minimizing the air gap, especially when it is used against the treatment area with irregular surface. However, the air gap between branded bolus and skin was not enough to cause a change in target dose. On the other hand, in the chest wall could confirm that dose decrease for small the air gap. Customized bolus production period took about 3 days and the development cost was quite expensive. Therefore, the commercialization of customized bolus developed by 3D printers requires low-cost 3D printer materials, adequate for the use of bolus.

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