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      • KCI등재후보

        King Lear에 나타난 인간의 본질과 Karma

        심재만 ( Jae Man Shim ) 21세기영어영문학회 1999 영어영문학21 Vol.15 No.-

        To understand man`s intrinsic attributes, we have to know the essence of e power which enables man to live. What is the energy that sustains man? It may be said that it is energy which man gets by food which is physically needed to sustain the body. But man`s survival will which drives the man`s body does not derive from this kind of energy. It is from man`s energy to survive that gives him the energy and desire to exist. Man continues to live day after day by the energy of his desire. If there is no desire, man loses his will to live. So, it may be said that the ceaseless human desire has sustain him throughout history. Man, by his ceaseless desire, is continually trying to prove himself using destructive methods in order to succeed in his speech and behavior. Because of man`s destructive verbal abuse and behavior. man has accumulated negative karma, this negative karma causes more desires which cause harm to mankind, by the chain of cause and effect, incessantly causing a negative experience in reincamation. I attempt in this thesis to define the principles of karma and reincarnation by studying how the karma of man`s speech and behaviours which man`s vain desire has produced appears in real life, and to explain the substantial destiny of the characters in drama through the principles of karma and reincarnation.

      • KCI등재

        고난 받는 인자에 대한 “기록” : 막 9:12와 4:21에 드러난 예수의 구약 사용 연구

        박윤만(Yoon Man Park) 한국복음주의신약학회 2020 신약연구 Vol.19 No.1

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        본 논문은 9:12와 14:21에서 예수님이 인자의 고난이 “기록”되었다고 하셨을 때 구약성경 중 어떤 구절을 염두에 두셨는지를 연구한다. 다수의 학자들이 인정하는 것처럼 예수님의 인자 사용은 다니엘 7장을 그 배경으로 한다는 해석이 가장 설득력 있다. 하지만 다니엘의 “인자 같은 이”(13절)는 고난 받는 존재가 아니다. 논자는 9:12의 “인자에 대하여 기록하기를”과 14:21의 “인자는 기록된 대로 가거니와”를 예수께서 말씀하셨을 때 다니엘 7장의 “인자 같은 이”와 함께 이사야 53장의 고난 받는 종에 관한 구절을 심중에 두셨다고 주장할 것이다. 이같은 주장을 뒷받침하기 위해 논자는 근접, 원접 본문의 고난 받는 인자 어록의 도움을 받아 9:12와 14:21을 주해하면서 다니엘 7장과 이사야 53장의 언어와 주제가 해당 본문의 인자 어록에 어떻게 반향 되고 있는지를 논증할 것이다. 그런 후 제 2 성전 시기유대 문헌에서도 예수님처럼 다니엘의 인자의 사역과 역할을 이사야에 등장하는 여호와의 종의 사역과 역할에 비추어 이해하는 해석적 전통이 1 Enoch 36-71(『에녹의 비유』)에 역시 나타나고 있음을 보여줄 것이다. 이런 논증을 기반으로 논자는 9:12와 14:21의 ‘고난 받는 인자'와 관련한 예수님의 구약 사용은 “인자 같은 이”가 등장하는 다니엘 7장과 고난 받는 종이 언급된 이사야 53장을 융합하는 방식이었다는 주장을 할 것이다. The phrase ‘Son of Man' recurs fourteen times in the Gospel of Mark, in which the suffering of the Son of Man is the most prominent theme. As a result, it is that the suffering Son of Man is characteristic of the Son of Man in the second Gospel. The Old Testament plays a role in strengthening the theme because Jesus in 9:12 and 14:21 states that the passion of the Son of Man is “written”. The purpose of the present study is to investigate what kind of passages in the Old Testament Jesus has in mind when he says that the suffering of the son of man is “written.” As many scholars argue, it seems convinced that Jesus' use of the Son of Man as a self-designation is in a reference to the figure “like a son of man” in Daniel 7:13-14. But the problem is that “one like a son of man” in Daniel 7:13-14 is not a suffering figure. My argument is that Jesus has in mind that figure, his role in Daniel 7, the Suffering Servant, and his role in Isaiah 52:13-53:12 when he utters “it is written about the Son of Man”(9:12) and “the Son of Man goes as it is written of him”(14:21). In support of this argument the exegesis of 9:12 and 14:21 will be processed particularly by the help of ‘co-texts' in which the suffering of the Son of Man has been uttered whether it be directly or indirectly. The purpose of the exegesis is to show the words and themes of Daniel 7 and Isaiah 53 echoed and alluded in 9:12 and 14:21. And then 1 Enoch 36-71 (the Similitude) will be studied as an example to show that the fusion of the “one like a son of man” in Daniel 7 and Yahweh's Servant in Isaiah 40-53, which is similar to 9:12 and 14:21, was already made in order to define the role and function of a messianic figure in the second temple Judaism.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Enhancing the Enzymatic Activity of the Multifunctional β-Glycosyl Hydrolase (Cel44C-Man26A<sub>P558</sub>) from Paenibacillus polymyxa GS01 Using DNA Shuffling

        강영민,강태호,윤한대,조계만,Kang,,Young-Min,Kang,,Tae-Ho,Yun,,Han-Dae,Cho,,Kye-Man The Microbiological Society of Korea 2012 미생물학회지 Vol.48 No.2

        본 연구자들은 이전에 cellulase, xyalnase 및 lichenase의 다기능 효소활성을 지니는 절단된 Cel44C-$Man26A_{P558}$의 ${\beta}$-glycosyl hydrolase를 보고하였다. 본 연구에서는 절단된 Cel44C-$Man26A_{P558}$ 효소의 다기능성 ${\beta}$-glycosyl hydrolase 활성을 증가시키기 위해 DNA shuffling을 시도하였다. DNA shuffling에 의해 단일변이(P438A)를 가진 M2Cel44C-$Man26A_{P558}$와 이중변이(A273T 및 P438A)를 가진 M21Cel44C-$Man26A_{P558}$를 얻었다. 이중변이를 가진 M21Cel44C-$Man26A_{P558}$은 단일변이를 가진 M2Cel44C-$Man26A_{P558}$ 보다 효소활성이 낮게 나타났으나, M2Cel44C-$Man26A_{P558}$와 M21Cel44C-$Man26A_{P558}$은 대조구인 Cel44C-$Man26A_{P558}$ 보다 약 1.3에서 2.2배 정도 높은 효소활성을 나타내었다. 특히, 단일변이를 가진 M2Cel44C-$Man26A_{P558}$는 대조구인 Cel44C-$Man26A_{P558}$보다 cellulase, xylanase 및 lichenase 효소활성이 약 1.5에서 2.2배 정도 높게 나타났다. ${\beta}$-Glycosyl hydrolase의 cellulase, linchenase 및 xylanase 최적 효소활성은 각각 pH 7.0, 7.0 및 6.0에서 이었다. 이러한 결과는, 아미노산 잔기인 Ala438이 다기능성 ${\beta}$-glycosyl hydrolase 활성을 증가시키는 중요한 역할을 한다고 추정할 수 있다. We previously reported that the truncated Cel44C-$Man26A_{P558}$ ${\beta}$-glycosyl hydrolase protein exhibits multifunctional activities, including cellulase, xylanase, and lichenase. DNA shuffling of the truncated Cel44C-$Man26A_{P558}$ enzyme was performed to enhance the enzymatic activity of the multifunctional ${\beta}$-glycosyl hydrolase. Two mutant enzymes, M2Cel44C-$Man26A_{P558}$ that carries one mutation (P438A) and M21Cel44C-$Man26A_{P558}$ that carries two mutations (A273T and P438A) were obtained. The enzymatic activity of the M21Cel44C-$Man26A_{P558}$ double mutant was lower than enzymatic activity of the single mutant (M2Cel44C-$Man26A_{P558}$). However, both mutants displayed the enhancements in their enzyme activities that were ${\approx}1.3$- to 2.2-fold higher than the original enzymatic activity in Cel44C-$Man26A_{P558}$. In particular, the mutant M2Cel44C-$Man26A_{P558}$ exhibited an approximate 1.5- to 2.2-fold increase in the cellulase, xylanase, and lichenase activities in comparison with the control (Cel44C-$Man26A_{P558}$). The optimum cellulase, linchenase, and xylanase activities of ${\beta}$-glycosyl hydrolase were observed at pH 7.0, pH 7.0 and pH 6.0, respectively. These results, therefore, suggest that the amino acid residue Ala438 plays important roles in the enhancement of the activity of multifunctional ${\beta}$-glycosyl hydrolase.

      • KCI등재

        채만식 수필에 대한 근대성 기제와 현재적 함의

        허만욱(Heo, Man-Wook) 우리문학회 2018 우리文學硏究 Vol.0 No.57

        그동안 채만식에 대한 연구는 그의 소설과 희곡에만 집중되어 왔다. 한국의 근대, 근대화, 근대성 등과 연관된 문학적 논의에서 채만식의 소설은 도식성과 공리성에서 벗어나 문학의 고유 상상력을 통해 시대의 핵심에 접근하며 리얼리즘의 면모를 보여주었던 한국 근대문학사의 대표적 작가 가운데 한 사람으로 꼽힌다. 그런데 채만식은 소설과 희곡 외에도 분량적인 면에서도 결코 적지 않은 230여 편의 수필과 평론들을 발표한 문필가이기도 했다. 특히 수필은 근대 산문양식의 문학예술 가운데 하나로서, 직접적인 진술의 형태를 통해 작가의 의식을 그대로 드러내기 때문에 작가적 정체성이나 작가의식을 탐색하는 과정에서 유용한 단서를 제공할 수 있다. 따라서 채만식 수필에 대한 논의는 결국 식민지 근대를 살았던 채만식의 문학관과 근대성에 대한 태도를 포착하는 일이 될 것이다. 본고에서는 물질적 궁핍에 의한 생활고의 비애와 질병으로 인한 고통, 프로 문단과의 갈등과 문학의 태도 및 창작방법에 대한 이념에 관련한 텍스트를 집중적으로 소환함으로써 적빈한 생활이 강요하는 자괴감과 작가의 자존 사이에서 방황하고 갈등하는 경계인으로서의 냉소와 니힐리즘, 그리고 예술적 방법에 의한 문학활동을 무엇보다 중시한 채만식의 작가적 신념과 실천 등에 관한 고찰이 이루어졌다. 그러나 그의 산문에는 자연을 소재로 한 감상, 유복했던 유년시절과 고향에 대한 추억, 어머니와 그의 여인들에 관한 소회, 당대의 현실인식과 저널리스트로서의 사회에 대한 비판의식, 그리고 식민성의 인식과 대응양상이라는 측면에서 독자적인 근대문학을 추구하고자 했던 고민과 흔적 등을 두루 발견할 수 있다. 작가의 생애와 작품은 긴밀한 길항관계를 맺는다. 그러므로 산문에 투영되어 있는 이러한 자전적 요소들은 그의 문학세계에 대한 태생적인 실마리를 제공할 가능성이 크며, 채만식 문학세계의 각기 다른 표현으로서 그 본질에 접근해 갈 수 있는 하나의 내적 기제가 된다. The purpose of this paper is to grasp Chae Man-sik's literary attitude through his essay. Chae Man-sik's essay and my research on it will serve as an important source to fully grasp the author's consciousness, related to the reality of the times and the literary spirit possessed by the author, and will contribute to expanding the scope of research as a part constituting a more diverse approach to Chae Man-sik's literature. In the prose of Chae Man-sik, one can find the author's anxieties, which can be traced to his own modern literature. The consciousness of oneself who is excluded as the other in the modern system by doubting the value of modernity is revealed in the prose form of cynicism by hiding away from reality and inserting an objective distance in his prose. This cynicism has naturally brought self-defensive self-reliance and nihilism of self-consciousness at the end of the impasse reached by the resignation of consciousness. His nihilism is embodied and deepened in the self-defeating consciousness due to the gap between the artist's ideal and the reality that frustrates it. Therefore, nihilism in Chae Man-sik's essay is also closely related to the excessiveness of the reality irregularity and the failure to find a subject to overcome such a reality of the times. The artist's consciousness and self-reflection, which is negotiated with reality, have psycho-historical value as the awareness of the individual from a modern point of view. Soon Chae Man-sik's essay is meaningful as a case of demonstrating a standard of constant reflection on modern experience. It is clear that Chae Man-sik was certainly looking for the world of literature toward which he aimed. He was especially filled with his own ideology, his artistic expression, and his desire to write good literature or a novel. Although his literary practice faced many obstacles, Chae Man-sik's rigorous attitude to adhere to artistic values contributed to the growth of his literature. The artist's ceremony of Chae Man-sik, who pursued the possibility of Korean literature, such as the Korean style reader, unique in form and content, is deeply connected to the viewpoint of the aesthetic response to modernity, and made him impressive in the history of modern Korean literature.

      • KCI등재후보

        중국의 조선족 아동문학의 발전과정과 전망

        김만석(Kim, Man-sunk) 한국아동문학학회 2009 한국아동문학연구 Vol.- No.16

        중국의 조선족 문학은 중국의 정치 사회적 영향을 받으면서 계급주의 아동 문학의 형태로부터 시작하여 이후 소련 아동문학, 조선 아동문학, 중국 교육에 활용되는 아동 문학의 영향아래 발전하였다. 중국 조선족 동시 발전 과정은 1927년 채택용의 ‘어린 동생'에서 시작하여 동시 개척시기(1930-1940), 동시 황금시기(1950-1959), 본격 동시재생 시기(1980-1990), 동시 혁신운동시기(1990년 후반) 으로 나눌 수 있다. 조선족 동화 문학의 발전과정은 개척단계(1930-1940), 실험단계(1950-1070), 흥성단계(1980-1989), 탐구단계(1990-1999)로 나눌 수 있다. 중국 조선족 아동소설의 발전과정은 개척단계(1930-1940), 정립단계(1950-1970), 탐구단계(1980-1990)으로 나눌 수 있다. 현재 중국 조선족의 아동문학중 동시 부분은 가장 선두장르로 뽑히고 있으며 앞으로도 김성룡,김철호, 림금산, 김현순 등의 활약이 기대된다. 동화와 우화창작은 재미성과 현대성 추구 등 동화의 무대를 확장하려는 노력을 하고 있다. 아동소설창작에서는 아동의 인격과 인권문제등을 다루는 탐구적 소설들이 시도되고 있다. 수필문학에서는 철리적 수필과 동심을 다룬 수필 등이 시도되고 있다. 동극문학도 명맥을 이어나가고 있으나 영화, 텔레비문학으로는 공백을 이루고 있다. Chinese man of Korean literary was formed by influencing of Chinese social and politic situation in China. First stage of Chinese man of Korean literary started from proletarian children"s literary however, it was influenced in Soviet children literary, Chinese man of Korean literary and Chines educational literary. The process of Chinese man of Korean children"s poety is continue from a pioneering period (1930-1940), a golden age(1950-1959), a regeneration age(1980-1990), a reform to movement period(1990 after-) The process of Chinese man of Korean children"s novel development is consist of a pioneering period( 1930"-1940"), experimental stage(1950"-1970"), Renaissance (1980-1989), investigation age(1990-1999). The process of chinese man of Korean children"s fantasy development is going on a pioneering period(1930-1940), a triangular position age (1950-1970), a investigation age (1980-1990). The children"s poetry is a prominent genre of Chines man of Korean literary and Sung-Loung Kim, Chul-Ho Kim and Keum-San Lim are famous as poets for children, Writing of fantasy were tried to have contents with wit and modernism and they want to expand their stage of stories. The children"s of novel have chilren"s personalities and human right to show writers" new trials. Essay for children include sophistic contents and children"s mind. Children"s paly are still written by writers but no one writes plays for television dramas.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        정상 한국인에서 연령증가에 따른 혈장 Dehydroepiandrosteronesulfate ( DHEA-S ) 농도 및 DHEA - S / cortisol 비의 변화

        박성우,유형준,임성희,최문기,유재명,박민숙,이권엽,박철수,김철홍,김현규,김두만,박규용 대한내분비학회 1997 Endocrinology and metabolism Vol.12 No.2

        Backgroud: DHEA-S is the most abundant steroid hormone in circulation, and primarily secreted from the adrenal cortex, but its physiological role is little known. One of the characteristic features of DHEA-S is progressive decrement of plasma DHEA-S level with advancing age, in contrast, plasma levels of other adrenal hormones are not chaging or littie decreasing. To grasp the trends of plasma DHEA-S level and DHEA-S/cortisol ratio by age in healthy Korean, we measured the plasma DHEA-S levels and DHEA-S/cortisol ratios in healthy Korean. Methods: Healthy Korean(men: 99, women: 102, age range: 15-97 year old)were studied. Subjects were not taking drugs(such as glucocorticoid or androgenic medication) or cigarettes known to modify the plasma level of DHEA-S and cortisol, and had no evidence of hepatic, renal disease or hyperlipidemia as determined by serum lipid, bilirubin, SGOT, SGPT, BUN, creatinine. Data were analyzed by 10-year age group for men and women: i.e, 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40- 49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80-89 and 90 year or more. Plasma DHEA-S levels were measured by using a commercially available RIA kit with 125I labeled-DHEA-SO4(Coat-A Count DHEA-SO4), and for the measurement of plasma cortisol levels, commercial Gamma Coat TM[125I] Cortisol Radioimmunassay Kit was used. Results:. 1) In both men and women, plasma DHEA-S level showed high interindividual variation within the same age group. 2) There were individual sex differences in plasma levels of DHEA-S, in all age groups, plasma DHEA-S levels were significantly higher values for men than for women. 3) Maximum plasma DHEA-S levels(men; 237+-3.35 ug/dL, women; 108+-17.5 ug/dL) were at third decade in both men and women. 4) Both men and women showed the continuous decline in plasma DHEA-S level with age. These age-related decline was more prominent in men than in women(men; y= -3.152 * +292.6, r2= 0.8459, P$lt;0.05, women; y= -1.417 * +143.3, r2 = 0.7278, P$lt; 0.05). 5) As an index of aging, there was no stastical difference between DHEA-S and DHEA- S/cortisol ratio. Conclusion: In healthy Korean, there were high interindividual variation of plasrna DHEA-S levels. In both men and women plasma DHEA-S level was peak at third decade, and from when it declined progressively with age. These results suggest that although the reliability of single plasma DHEA-S measurement are limited, the decline of DHEA-S with advancing age might be a specific marker of endocrinologic hormonal milieu(aging index). Also, concerning to individual adrenal secreting capacity, we measured DHEA-S/cortisol ratio. But we did not found that plasma DHEA-S/cortisol ratio is superior to the plasma DHEA-S level as an aging index. (J Kor Soc Endocrinol 12:245-254, 1997)

      • 實存 哲學의 時間 構造

        李載萬 명지대학교 1968 明大論文集 Vol.1 No.-

        This thesis has it her purpose to deal with the problem how a man understands the existence itself thru the “time of living” and with the problem how this existential man may deal with the structure of time. The ‘time' is an essential factor for comprehending the existential element of a realistic man to have got a significant place in philosophy. The theme has been thoroughly pursued by the existential philosophy. The ‘time' put back toward the internal consciousness of a man from the concept of an objective stream has come to be given a big step forward. As the time is experienced, future acts upon the present and past is construed as restricting a present action by serving the basis which supports the present, in consequence the existential philosophy has by necessity come to give a central place to the time. And as time is given to mann as an experience, the form is categorized into two, i.e. an objective time and a concrete, subjective time. And in accordance as the class of the time experience differs the difference of the time-sense also comes into being. Viewed from the construction of the time, the life philosophy and the existential philosophy have got something in common, which is brought to light by clearing the time structure of a man. 3 forms of the time-structure are; past… present… future. Then the present does not serve a trimming section between past the future… no, time is not such a body which may be trimmed at will. But a moment has width and flexibility to serve a chain. Future serves a plan and a hope. As a man does everything at any present moment, an element of future is included to assert itself and past is also included as a reminder and the present moment has got a very complex structure the present is not a momentary and transitory instant but a chain which binds what is at present with what was and what will be together. But the existential time which comprehends a man in finiteness may be termed as an expression of the human finiteness. Past at the present moment restricts the freedom of a human behavior and heavily burdening him asserts itself to press on the present. And a man who is put in a situation tries to overcome it with a relationship to the future, by these attempts a human nature comes into being. A man concentrates his whole attempts on the existential moment, and it is whether he may transcend ove the situation towards the future or he must escape from the situation faced, that is, he must deal negatively what is pressing on him. At this point, the existential, original time differs from the present-existing, non-original time. Real existence is absolute at the moment of this original time, but by jumping over, it breaks the barrier of time which flows to vanish. At this moment the real existence itself has got no longer the quality of time, but exhibits absoluteness. In other words another dimension which does not pertain to time-prolongation opens before us. Thus, in accordance with a constuction of the moment as a joint-spot between time and eternity, they try to grasp the absoluteness of a particular moment.

      • 건강검진자를 대상으로한 갑상선질환의 유병률 조사

        석성자 ( Seong Ja Seok ), 신두만 ( Du Man Shin ) 대한임상검사과학회 2007 대한임상검사과학회지(KJCLS) Vol.39 No.2

        This study was carried out on 14,443 subjects (8,706 men, 5,737 women ; between 20-80 years of age, mean age 41.8 ± 9.16) who visited the health promotion center of one university hospital. Serum T3, T4 and TSH concentrations were measured with CIA using commercial kits on ADVIA Centaur Assay. The prevalence of thyroid disfunction was high in elderly people and women like in western countries. The results were as follows; 1. The prevalence of overt hyperthyroidism was 4.8/1,000 population (men 4.1/1,000, women 5.9/1,000) and was higher in women than in men. 2. The prevalence of subclinical hyperthyroidism was 10.7/1,000 population (men 9.0/1,000, women 13.2/1,000) with peak prevalence at the age group 50, 60 and was higher in women than in men. 3. The prevalence of overt hypothyroidism was 0.5/1,000 population (men 0.5/1,000, women 0.5/1,000). The prevalence increased with age and was significantly higher in women in the age group over 60 years. 4. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was 12.6/1,000 population (men 6.0/1,000, women 22.7/1,000) and was as high as about 4 times in women than in men. 5. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction was higher in women than in men in all the age groups, and was higher in the age group 50, 60 years than in any other age group.

      • KCI등재

        증산의 풍수관(風水觀) 고찰 -『전경(典經)』을 중심으로-

        박상만 ( Sang Man Park ) 대진대학교 대순사상학술원 2015 대순사상논총 Vol.25 No.1

        Master Jeungsan understood a general view of Pungsu but actually he used the theory of Pungsu in his own religious perspective, transcending it. The theory of Pungsu is different. But the fact that it is premised on the principle of ‘in and yang', the five-element principle, the Book of Changes, energy thought, and To chugi piyung, etc. is generally recognized. The three important elements of Pungsu are mountain, water, and direction or man. Pungsu has formal principles such as Gallyongbeop, Jangpungbeop, Deuksubeop, Jeonghyeolbeop, Jwahyangbeop, and Hyeongukron. etc. In the late of Joseon, Jeungsan established a new traditional thought, understanding Bibopungsu, Gukdopungsu, Minganpungsu, etc. However, he reinterpreted them to be suitable to his religious ideal and let his followers understand them as well. In particular, Jeungsan overcame the previous view on earth and expressed a new perspective to enhance earth up to the level of heaven. In the perspective of the traditional world, earth is lower than heaven, but Jeungsan made it a status equal to heaven. He mentioned that in the past, the culture and history of man was influenced by earth``s energy but today, at the age of man respect, he put passive man influenced by earth-condition on the more subjective and active status. Even though he mentioned different Pungsu, Hyeongguk, and Hyeolmyeong, he expressed the shape of Pungsu within the construction of three worlds, the one of heaven and earth transcending good or ill luck or a favorable change in fortune. Hepractised the expedient of Pungsu from the stand of the construction of heaven and earth instead of the usage of Bibopungsu, Gukdopungsu, and Minganpungsu. He diagnosed that the division of the world is caused by the one of earth and tried to solve it. Moreover, he said that Myeongdang(a propitious site) must be the man-orientation rather than the earth-orientation. It means that Pungsu, stressing the energy of earth and turning one's luck, is changing into the world of man-orientation. In other words, Jeungsan diagnosed the world of Pungsu but he ultimately used Pungsu theory in building up his own view of religious world transcending such a theory.

      • KCI등재

        채만식 수필과 근대의 도시 읽기

        허만욱(Heo, Man-Wook) 우리문학회 2021 우리文學硏究 Vol.0 No.69

        본고는 1930년대 채만식 수필을 ‘도시성'이라는 주제를 중심으로 도시 ‘경성'의 근대성을 분석하여 제국주의 근대를 살아가는 주체의 존재와 그 의미를 파악하는 한편, 작품에서 구현되는 모더니티의 양상을 살핌으로써 모더니즘 작가로서의 채만식의 새로운 면모를 발견하고자 하였다. 이는 곧 리얼리스트 채만식 문학의 모더니즘적 성격에 대한 하나의 논의이며, 리얼리즘의 관점에 갇혀 보다 적극적으로 모더니즘적 평가를 하지 못했던 아쉬움을 보완하는 일이 될 것이다. 채만식 수필에서 ‘경성'은 전통과 근대, 식민과 피식민, 자본과 착취 등이 뒤섞인 양상으로 나타난다. 곧 이중도시로서의 ‘경성'은 동시성의 비동시성, 아나크로니즘, 불균등성, 그리고 자본주의 등이 도시의 횡측을 분할하며 식민지 근대의 현실을 그대로 재현하는 공간이었다. 특정 텍스트와 그것이 창출된 시공간적 맥락이 서로 불가분의 관계임을 전제한다면, ‘경성'의 근대성을 경험한 채만식의 수필은 이미 모더니즘 문학의 한 자리에 서게 된다. 채만식은 근대화된 도시 공간에서 이질적이고 혼재된 풍경을 발견하는 한편, 도시 산책이라는 모더니티의 체험을 문학적 모더니즘으로 변형시키고, 경성의 도시적 면모를 제국과의 식민지 관계로 확장시키며 자본 착취에 따른 피식민지의 빈곤을 고발하기도 한다. 식민지 시대의 근대는 근대성과 탈근대성이 공존하는 독특한 모던의 시간이 연출되었다. 근대성에 대한 비판이란 근대화의 과정에서 이미 의식에 내면화되어 있는 근대성의 의식구조를 근본적으로 반성함으로써 진정한 의미에서 근대와 단절하려는 용기를 의미한다고 볼 수 있다. 이런 맥락에서 탈근대적인 사유 역시 지금 현재 자기 부정의 일부로서의 비판적, 반성적 근대성일 수 있다. 채만식의 작품 이면에 내재해 있는 모더니티에 대한 비판이나, 식민 도시가 지닌 한계를 인식하고 탈근대적 사고를 지향했던 포스트 모더니즘적인 감수성과 문제의식에 주목한 것도 이 때문이다. 채만식 수필에서 적어도 모더니즘으로 이해되는 그의 수필 인식과 표현 대부분은 전통적인 것에 기반을 둔 근대적 삶의 비판적 향유가 전면에 드러난다. ‘낡은 질서에 대한 새로운 정신의 부정의 불길'을 담으려는 모더니즘의 원리를 일반적 원칙으로 수용한 것이며, 기존체계에 대한 합리적 반발로서의 모더니즘의 일반론을 식민지라는 암울한 역사적 상황에 접목시킨 것이라고 할 수 있다. 이는 채만식을 리얼리즘 작가로 한정하는 시각의 상당부분을 유보할 수 있는 가능성을 제시해 주는 것이기도 하다. This paper analyzes the modernity of the city “Gyeongseong” based on the theme of “city” in Chae Man-Sik's Essay in the 1930s that covered the existence and meaning of a subject living in imperialist modernity. He tried to discover a new perspective as a modernist artist by looking at the aspects of modernity embodied in his work. Along with the sharp criticism of modernity that underlie his work, he also paid attention to postmodern sensibilities and problem consciousness, which recognize the limitations of colonial cities and pursuing postmodern thinking. In Chae Man-Sik's Essay, “Gyeongseong” is a mixture of tradition and modernity, colonialism and colonialism, capitalism and exploitation. In other words, ‘Gyeongseong' as a dual city was a space where the asynchronicity of synchronicity, anachronism, inequality, and capitalism divided the city, revealing the historical reality of colonial modernity. Assuming that a specific text and the spatio-temporal context in which it is written are inseparable, the essay by Chae Man-Sik, who experienced the modernity of “Gyeongseong”, has a place in modernist literature. Like the double city, “Gyeongseong”, the works generally present a double textual character by presenting the surface and the inner side, and this textual characteristic may be an inevitably chosen strategy for the strict censorship system. During the colonial era, modernity and postmodernity coexisted in a unique manner. Criticism of modernity was viewed as the courage to break from modernity in a true sense, by fundamentally reflecting on the consciousness structure of modernity that is internalized during the modernization process. In this context, postmodern thinking can also be a critical reflection of modernity as a form of self-denial. Soon, postmodern is the modernity that begins at this moment. Chae Man-Sik's Essay is a beautiful essay that combines thoughts on the daily life in colonial cities in the 1930s with a cold modernist perspective. Most of the recognition and expressions in Chae Man-Sik's Essay, which is classified as modernist, reveals the critical enjoyment of modern life based on the traditional. It is clear that the modernist principle of containing the flame of the negation of the new spirit against the old order' was accepted as a general principle, and it can be said that the general theory of modernism as a rational opposition to the existing system was grafted into the dark historical situation of colonization. This also suggests the possibility of withholding a significant portion of the perspective that limits Chae Man-Sik's Essay as a realist artist.

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