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Contemporary Chinese notions of translation have to be understood against a globalized world where international trading and business transactions are the order of the day. This paper proposes to discuss one current school of thinking about translation in China. In the past decade or so, translation has been seen as playing a crucial part in exporting Chinese culture in order to build a favorable national image and increase the country's soft power. This has occurred as a result of the perception of an imbalance between the importation of things foreign (qing jinlai) and the exportation of things Chinese (song chuqu). To compete successfully on the international scene, cultural exports have to be promoted. Since globalization forces are dominating the scene, translation becomes an “industry” governed by the operational logic of a “socialist market economy”—a notion unheard of two decades ago. While translation can still be seen as inter-linguistic transfer, its value is no longer to be judged on the basis of whether the rendering is faithful or not. The “classical” theories of translation—wen (refinement), zhi (straightforwardness), xindaya (faithfulness, fluency and elegance), zhiyi (literal translation) and yiyi (free translation)—are slowly losing ground to the new conceptualizations of translation in the contemporary world, and the present paper focuses on the one most discussed, debated and disseminated in the past two decades or so.
그리스도교가 헬레니즘을 수용해 그리스화(Hellenisierung) 되었다는 아돌프 하르낙(Adolf von Harnack, 1851-1930)의 주장을 둘러싼 논의가 수그러들지 않은 시점에서 루돌프 불트만(Rudolf Bultmann, 1884-1976)은 ‘탈신화화'(Entmythologisierung, 脫神話化)라는 개념으로 자신의 해석학적 입장을 표방하는데, 이로써 독일 신학계는 19세기 말에서 20세기 중반에 이르기까지, 그리스도교의 자기정체성을 묻는 작업에 몰두한다. 그러나 이 두 신학자의 문제 제기는 두 차례에 걸친 세계대전 동안의 혼란과 제2차 바티칸 공의회로 인한 신학적 관심사의 전환으로 인해 아쉽게도 미완의 논의로 남게 되었고, 오늘날에는 세속화 신학의 방법론으로 즐겨 활용되고 있다. 이 같은 배경을 이해할 때 우리는 레오 쉐프칙(Leo Scheffczyk, 1920-2005), 알로이스 그릴마이어(Alois Kardinal Grillmeier, S.J., 1910-1998) 그리고 요제프 라칭거(Josef Ratzinger alias Benedikt XVI, 1927-)와 같은 권위 있는 가톨릭 신학자들이 왜 이 지난 세기의 주제들(‘그리스도교의 그리스화'와 ‘탈신화화')과 여전히 씨름하는지를 이해할 수 있다. 그리스도교는 이미 그 초기부터 신화에 대해 잘 알고 있었고, 그래서 신화에 대해서 충분한 검증과정을 거쳐 능동적으로 수용 및 배격하는 과정을 통해 복음 전파의 도구로 활용했다는 것이 저자의 주장이다. 그리고 저자는 성경에서 찾아 볼 수 있는 초대교회의 (긍정적인 의미에서의) ‘탈신화화' 노력에 주목하지 않고, 과거의 기록이라는 이유만으로 성경과 교의를 신화와 동일시하는 것은 일종의 이데올로기라고 말한다. 쉐프칙은 불트만의 ‘탈신화화' 요구는 신학적 측면에서 그 타당성에 의심이 갈 뿐만 아니라 그 시도 자체에 모순을 내재하고 있다고 말한다. 위에서 언급된 신학적 사안에 대한 불충분한 연구는 전후 유럽 신학계의 문제만이 아니다. 서구 신학계의 논의가 유입되기는 하지만 그에 대한 후속연구가 이어지지 않는 국내의 신학계 및 종교계에 ‘탈신화화'는 마땅한 반론이나 답변을 듣지 못한 채 여전히 회자되고 있기 때문이다. 쉐프칙 추기경의 연구는 이 신학적 사안을 둘러싼 오해를 해소하려는 우리의 노력에 도움이 될 수 있을 것이다.
We describe the framework of a data-fuelled, interdisciplinary team-led learning system. The idea is to build models using patients from one's own institution whose features are similar to an index patient as regards an outcome of interest, in order to predict the utility of diagnostic tests and interventions, as well as inform prognosis. The Laboratory of Computational Physiology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology developed and maintains MIMIC-Ⅱ, a public deidentified high- resolution database of patients admitted to Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. It hosts teams of clinicians (nurses, doctors, pharmacists) and scientists (database engineers, modelers, epidemiologists) who translate the day-to-day questions during rounds that have no clear answers in the current medical literature into study designs, perform the modeling and the analysis and publish their findings. The studies fall into the following broad categories: identification and interrogation of practice variation, predictive modeling of clinical outcomes within patient subsets and comparative effectiveness research on diagnostic tests and therapeutic interventions. Clinical databases such as MIMIC-Ⅱ, where recorded health care transactions - clinical decisions linked with patient outcomes - are constantly uploaded, become the centerpiece of a learning system.
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Objective: To determine Korean facial profile preferences based on lip position as assessed by Hispanic-Americans of varying western adaptation levels and to determine whether the age and sex of the rater had any influence. Methods: For this study, 132 Hispanic-Americans and 68 Caucasians of varying age, sex and western adaptation levels volunteered to rate their preference of Korean male and female facial silhouettes having lips ranging from retruding to protruding. The Hispanic-Americans were also asked to complete a Bidimensional Acculturation Scale questionnaire to determine their western adaptation status: low-acculturated Hispanics (LAH; lesser western-adapted Hispanic participants) or high-acculturated Hispanics (HAH; higher westernadapted Hispanic participants). Results: The LAHs preferred significantly more retruded lip positions (p < 0.05) while HAHs showed some similarities with Caucasian participants in the results for the Korean male profile, even though HAHs preferred more retruded lip positions for the Korean female profile than Caucasians did (p < 0.05). The age and sex of raters did not influence the preference of facial profiles (p > 0.05). Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that Hispanic-Americans prefer a flatter Korean lip profile. It would be prudent for orthodontists to offer patients the option of altering lip profile through orthodontic and/or orthognathic surgery treatments.
The human gut microbiome impacts human brain health in numerous ways: (1) Structural bacterial components such as lipopolysaccharides provide low-grade tonic stimulation of the innate immune system. Excessive stimulation due to bacterial dysbiosis, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, or increased intestinal permeability may produce systemic and/or central nervous system inflammation. (2) Bacterial proteins may cross-react with human antigens to stimulate dysfunctional responses of the adaptive immune system. (3) Bacterial enzymes may produce neurotoxic metabolites such as Dlactic acid and ammonia. Even beneficial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids may exert neurotoxicity. (4) Gut microbes can produce hormones and neurotransmitters that are identical to those produced by humans. Bacterial receptors for these hormones influence microbial growth and virulence. (5) Gut bacteria directly stimulate afferent neurons of the enteric nervous system to send signals to the brain via the vagus nerve. Through these varied mechanisms, gut microbes shape the architecture of sleep and stress reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. They influence memory, mood, and cognition and are clinically and therapeutically relevant to a range of disorders, including alcoholism, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and restless legs syndrome. Their role in multiple sclerosis and the neurologic manifestations of celiac disease is being studied. Nutritional tools for altering the gut microbiome therapeutically include changes in diet, probiotics, and prebiotics.
A new explanation, using exponential functions, is given for the S-shaped functional relation between the mean citation score and the proportion of top 10% (and other percentages) publications for the 500 Leiden Ranking universities. With this new model we again obtain an explanation for the concave or convex relation between the proportion of top 100θ% publications, for different fractions of θ.
Much effort has been devoted over the past few centuries to presenting China to the West in the English language, beginning with the classical sinology of nineteenth-century Britain and reaching a climax through late-twentieth century Chinese Studies in the States, carried out mostly in departments of East Asian languages and literature/cultures. Invariably there is one shared element in these approaches: translation. In our age, the pervasive use of English as the language of academic discourse, combined with the increased hegemony of English in fields beyond those of business, recreation and diplomacy, means that the “Westernization” of forms of knowledge related to Chinese culture and tradition has become inescapable. In the new linguistic imperialism, what is prominent are the misrepresentation, distortion and manipulation carried out in connection with the translation of ideas from Chinese into English. The present article focuses on ideas rather than texts in order to understand the cannibalization of one language by another that has occurred in translation. The example chosen is the translation of a key literary term―xiaoshuo (literally “small talk” but often translated as “fiction”)―which appears in academic writings published by American Sinologists in the past few decades, in which the epistemological gap between the Chinese and English terms is artificially bridged.
Much effort has been devoted over the past few centuries to presenting China to the West in the English language, beginning with the classical sinology of nineteenth-century Britain and reaching a climax through late-twentieth century Chinese Studies in the States, carried out mostly in departments of East Asian languages and literature/cultures. Invariably there is one shared element in these approaches: translation. In our age, the pervasive use of English as the language of academic discourse, combined with the increased hegemony of English in fields beyond those of business, recreation and diplomacy, means that the “Westernization” of forms of knowledge related to Chinese culture and tradition has become inescapable. In the new linguistic imperialism, what is prominent are the misrepresentation, distortion and manipulation carried out in connection with the translation of ideas from Chinese into English. The present article focuses on ideas rather than texts in order to understand the cannibalization of one language by another that has occurred in translation. The example chosen is the translation of a key literary term-xiaoshuo (literally “small talk” but often translated as “fiction”)-which appears in academic writings published by American Sinologists in the past few decades, in which the epistemological gap between the Chinese and English terms is artificially bridged.
Saturated biomarker source and maturity parametersobtained from Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry wereanalyzed using multivariate statistical methods to maximize diagnosticinformation on the hopanes and sterane spectrum. This statisticalmethod provided the identification of structural relationships(similarities and differences) between various fingerprint descriptorsfor the crude oil samples. The results emphasized the separation ofthe oil samples in regards to their locations into two genetic families. This separation pattern is more evident when principal componentanalysis was applied to biomarker data compared with the standardbiomarker cross-plots. Such compositional differences are commonlyattributed to unique source rock paleodepositional environments. The plotted source and maturity diagnostic parameter in a dendrogramseparated the oils into two families both having terrestrialinput. The group that have higher terrestrial input contain moreoleananes, and have the highest Pr/Ph ratio. They are generated fromsource rocks with a high abundance of terrestrial organic matter. Thesecond groups of oils have mixes of terrestrial and marine organicmatter with lesser amount of oleananes.