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Propolis is a resinous product collected byhoneybees from various plant sources; it is widely used intraditional medicine and has been reported to have a broadspectrum of pharmacological effects (i.e., antibacterial,antifungal, antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects). Themost commonly used propolis formulations are gargles, inwhich propolis tinctures are diluted with water. The dilutionprocess is accompanied by nanoprecipitation, and thepropolis droplets are dispersed in the prepared gargle. Inthe present study, we investigated the dependence of theproperties of propolis nanodispersions on the method ofpreparation. The particle size was found to be approximately150 nm and was observed to decrease withincreasing dilution as the zeta potential of the particlesbecame more negative, which stabilized the dispersion. The dispersion dissolved upon alkalization and reprecipitatedduring acidification. The addition of salt destabilizedthe dispersion. The uptake of propolis from the dispersionwas modeled using 1-octanol and was found to be rapidand only slightly dependent on the nanoparticle size. Propolis susceptibility tests showed that the most effectivedispersion of propolis was tenfold-diluted EEP (P-80-10and JP-80-10). The disc diffusion method was used toevaluate the antibacterial activity of chosen dispersions ofpropolis against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coliand Candida albicans. Propolis samples with differentlocations of origin exhibited different effects against thestrain of C. albicans.
Jiri,Pokorny,Aleksandr,Ometov,Pablo,Pascual,Carlos,Baquero,Pavel,Masek,Alexander,Pyattaev,Ainoa,Garcia,Carlos,Castillo,Sergey,Andreev,Jiri,Hosek,Yevgeni,Koucheryavy 한국통신학회 2018 Journal of communications and networks Vol.20 No.5
At present, cellular coverage in many rural areas remainsintermittent. Mobile operators may not be willing to deployexpensive network infrastructure to support low-demand regions. For that reason, solutions for the rapid deployment of base stationsin areas with insufficient or damaged operator infrastructureare emerging. Utilization of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) ordrones serving as data relays holds significant promise for deliveringon-demand connectivity as well as providing public safety servicesor aiding in recovery after communication infrastructure failurescaused by natural disasters. The use of UAVs in provisioninghigh-rate radio connectivity and bringing it to remote locations isalso envisioned as a potential application for fifth-generation (5G)communication systems. In this study, we introduce a prototypesolution for an aerial base station, where connectivity between adrone and a base station is provided via a directional microwavelink. Our prototype is equipped with a steering mechanism drivenby a dedicated algorithm to support such connectivity. Our experimentalresults demonstrate early-stage connectivity and signalstrength measurements that were gathered with our prototype. Our results are also compared against the free-space model. Thesefindings support the emerging vision of aerial base stations as partof the 5G ecosystem and beyond.
<P><B>Abstract</B></P><P>Secondary woodlands in South Korea cover most mountains from low to middle elevations. While general patterns of forest succession are well understood, little is known about mechanisms of stand recovery after disturbance. We examined the spatio‐temporal variations in establishment, growth, size inequality, and mode of competition among trees in a 50‐year‐old post‐logging <I>Quercus mongolica</I>‐dominated stand. We further compared the growth and stem allometry of single trees, presumably of seed origin, with multi‐stemmed trees resprouting from stumps. <I>Q. mongolica</I> formed the upper canopy 16–22 m tall, 88.3% of total stand basal area, and 36.2% of total stem density, with most trees established during the first post‐logging decade (51.2% were resprouts). During the first three decades, the <I>Q. mongolica</I> recruits grew exponentially, and disproportionately more in diameter than few older reserved trees left after the last cutting. This substantially decreased size inequality. The reverse trend was observed from 1994 to 2004: larger trees grow more, indicating an increasing asymmetry of competition for light. Neighborhood analysis revealed that when target trees had more or larger neighbors, their exponential phase of growth was reduced and maximum size was decreased. After the 50 years of stand development, more than 70% of <I>Q. mongolica</I> showed growth decline as a result of competitive stress, and mortality was about 30%, concentrated in smaller size classes. Compared to single stems, resprouts within clones do not seem to compete less asymmetric as might be expected based on studies of clonal herbaceous plants and physiological integration within genets. As <I>Q. mongolica</I> was also negatively affected by competition from woody species currently prevailing in the lower tree stratum (<I>Tilia amurensis, Acer mono, Fraxinus rhynchophylla, Acer pseudosieboldianum</I>), we predict the stand will become increasingly dominated by these more shade‐tolerant trees.</P>
This essay is dedicated to an important and constantly topical part of the Karel apek´s work, to his journalistic heritage. The text follows the periods of apek´s career as a journalist in a chronological order, but it also mentions his very beginnings as a newspaper contributor at the age of a junior high school student. His university years are taken into account as well, because that time had the decisive influence on the forming of the author´s view of the world. Karel apek wrote then some studies demonstrating his close relation to the philosophy of pragmatism, in which he saw an approach giving the people the possibility to shape and change the world on both knowledge and practical action level without the necessity of using violent revolutionary methods. The main part of the text makes the readers acquainted with the apek´s engagement in editorial staffs of two renowned Czech newspapers Nrodn listy and Lidov noviny. His contributions dedicated to a immense number of aspects of the surrounding reality are a true and detailed time mirror of the quieter and more dramatic periods of the Czechoslovak First republic. Karel apek, the close friend and the respectful expounder of the personality and the work of T.G. Masaryk, the first president of the Czechoslovakia, became himself the almost symbolistic representative of the democratic regime. He had to face the oppositional views from the side of both the extreme right and left wing orientated journalism. His brilliantly formulated contemplations on the role of nation, policy, culture and the tasks of the intellectuals in the time of endanger and peril from the side of Nazi Germany remain the most impressive part of apek´s journalistic heritage. 카렐 차페크(Karel Capek)의 저널리즘 유산
The implementation of multiplexing techniques combined with advances in neutron optics make the neutron three-axisspectrometers (TAS) an efficient tool to map inelastic response from single crystals over momentum transfer ranges comparableto the size of a single Brillouin zone. Thanks to recent progress in polarization techniques such experiments can be combinedrelatively easily with neutron polarization analysis, which does not only provide unambiguous separation of responsecorresponding to structural and magnetic degrees of freedom, but permits a quantitative analysis of the magnetic responseanisotropy, often of crucial importance to test theoretical predictions. In the forthcoming decade we therefore expect a furtherdevelopment of the complementary use, rather than competition, of the reactor-based TAS's with time-of-flight (TOF)instruments for single crystal spectroscopy at the existing (ISIS) as well as at the newly built (SNS, J-PARK) pulsed sources.
In this paper, we explored the impact of collectivism and individualism on the ethical decision. The purpose was to understand the ethical actions in cross-cultural behaviour. As a main conclusion, we found that there are differences between culture behaviour between Czech and Korean. Czech people are inclined to profile their action based on individualism and Koreans are inclined to follow the collective movement. From the aspect of ethical perspectives, we found that there was a non-relevant connection not only between individualism and justice, relativism and deontology, but also between collectivism and justice, relativism, and deontology. As the main output, we concluded that every person is highly affected by inner value and beliefs and cultural set up is just one piece of the answer on the question what is affecting ethical decision making between different respondents.