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In this study, the phylogenetic diversities of bacterial and archaeal communities in a plantmicrobial fuel cell (P-MFC) were investigated together with the environmental parameters, affecting its performance by using rice as a model plant. The beneficial effect of the plant appeared only during a certain period of the rice-growing season, at which point the maximum power density was approximately 3-fold higher with rice plants. The temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), and pH in the cathodic and anodic compartments changed considerably during the rice-growing season, and a higher temperature, reduced difference in pH between the cathodic and anodic compartments, and higher EC were advantageous to the performance of the P-MFC. A 16S rRNA pyrosequencing analysis showed that the 16S rRNAs of Deltaproteobacteria and those of Gammaproteobacteria were enriched on the anodes and the cathodes, respectively, when the electrical circuit was connected. At the species level, the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) related to Rhizobiales, Geobacter, Myxococcus, Deferrisoma, and Desulfobulbus were enriched on the anodes, while an OTU related to Acidiferrobacter thiooxydans occupied the highest proportion on the cathodes and occurred only when the circuit was connected. Furthermore, the connection of the electrical circuit decreased the abundance of 16S rRNAs of acetotrophic methanogens and increased that of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. The control of these physicochemical and microbiological factors is expected to be able to improve the performance of P-MFCs.
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Necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by Clostridium (C.) perfringens commonly occurs in domestic broiler farms since antibiotic supplementation in poultry feed has been banned. We evaluated the antibacterial activities of medicinal plant extracts against C. perfringens isolates to select alternative compounds for preventing NE. We compared antibacterial activities using two methods and evaluated susceptibilities of the isolates based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Two (Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance [FRH] and Geranium koreanum Kom. [GKK]) of the 30 plant extracts had potent antibacterial activities against C. perfringens ATCC 13124 in two assays. The MIC values for FRH and GKK against 20 C. perfringens isolates were 128~256 μg/mL and 32~128 μg/mL, respectively. The geometric MIC mean values for the two extracts were 147.2 μg/mL and 68.8 μg/mL, respectively. The MBCs for the two extracts against the same strains were 1,024~2,048 μg/mL and 256~1,024 μg/mL, respectively. The geometric mean MIC and MBC for GKK were about two-fold lower than those of FRH. The modified spot-on-lawn assay may be useful for measuring primary antibacterial potential. FRH and GKK are expected to be used as feed additives to prevent or treat NE in veterinary practice.
Lavoratory tests were conducted on the estimation of fatigue behaviour of plate girder reinforced with cover plate. Five specimens were fabricated and designed for full scale beam. The location of initial fatigue crack, the S-N curve and stress intensity factor range were found by means of these fatigue tests.