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      • KCI등재

        연구논문 : 경상북도 후포와 강원도 장호에서 정치망으로 채집된 어류 종조성 비교

        강정하 ( Jung Ha Kang ), 김이경 ( Yi Gyeong Kim ), 박중연 ( Jung Youn Park ), 김진구 ( Jin Koo Kim ), 유정화 ( Jung Hwa Ryu ), 강충배 ( Chung Bae Kang ), 박정호 ( Jeong Ho Park ) 한국수산과학회(구 한국수산학회) 2014 한국수산과학회지 Vol.47 No.4

        Two major temperature fronts, the Subpolar (Gosung, Gang-won-do; 38°-41° N) and Thermal (Jukbyun, Gyeong-sang-buk-do; 36°-37° N) fronts, are found in the East Sea along the east coast of Korea. These are located roughly where the Tsushima Warm Current and North Korea Cold Current intersect. To clarify the effect of the Thermal Front, we investigated seasonal variation in fish species composition using set nets in two areas located north (Jangho, Gang-won-do) and south (Hupo, Gyeong-sang-buk-do) of Jukbyun, Gyeong-sang-buk-do, and compared the sea water temperature and salinity. We collected a total of 38 fish species in Hupo and 25 in Jangho. Trachurus japonicus was the most common species at both sites, but the subdominant species differed. At Hupo, the subdominant species were Konosirus punctatus and Diodon holocanthus, whereas Clupea pallasii and Scomber japonicus were subdominant at Jangho. Based on Froese and Pauly (2014), subtropical fishes accounted for 55% of fish in Hupo but only for 33% in Jangho. The difference in fish species composition was most obvious in May and August. According to the Korea Hydrographic and Oceanographic Administration, sea surface temperature and salinity were slightly higher at Hupo than at Jangho. Our findings suggest that the oceanographic boundary resulting from the Thermal Front near Jukbyun, Gyeong-sang-buk- do may have a major effect on the distribution of migratory fish species.

      • KCI등재후보
      • KCI등재

        회심곡과 서울굿 바리공주의 음악적 비교

        박정경(Park Jeong-gyeong) 한국민요학회 2011 한국민요학 Vol.32 No.-

        이 연구는 가창자 혼자 무반주로 장시간 긴 노래를 연행하는 형태의 음악이 여러 종류 존재 한다는 점에 착안하여 회심곡과 서울굿 바리공주를 비교한 논문이다. 당초의 가정은 두 음악은 많은 공통점이 존재하리라는 것이었다. 모두 서울 · 경기 지역에서 집중적으로 전승되고 있고 연행 방식이 유사하기 때문이다. 그러나 세밀하게 분석해 본 결과 외형적으로 드러나는 것 외에 음악적으로는 많은 차이가 있다. 회심곡은 범어로 되어 있는 범패와 달리, 쉬운 우리말로 되어 있는 불교음악인 화청의 한 종류로 볼 수 있다. 회심곡은 절에서 승려들이 부르는 화청회심곡과 탁발승이나 걸립승이 민가를 돌아다니며 부르는 염불회심곡으로 나누어진다. 염불회심곡은 경기민요 소리꾼들에 의해 민요화되어 지금의 민요 회심곡으로 변모하였다. 한편, 서울굿 중 바리공주는 특수집단이 무당에 의해 발생되었고, 지속적으로 전승되어 왔다. 연행방식은 회심곡과 서울굿 바리공주의 눈에 띄는 공통점 중 하나다. 두 음악 모두 한 사람의 창자가 별도의 반주 없이 타악기를 두드리며 노래한다. 두드리는 악기의 종류와 두드리는 방식에 있어서는 차이를 보이는데, 화청회심곡은 징을, 민요 회심곡은 꽹과리를, 서울굿 바리 공주는 방울과 함께 장구를 세워놓고 북편만을 사용한다. 화청회심곡은 엇모리 또는 3 · 2 · 3 · 3 · 2 · 3의 16박이 사용되는 비교적 규칙적인 음악이다. 그에 비하여 민요 회심곡은 3소박을 기본으로 하되 가사의 길이에 따라 장단이 달라지고 리듬형에도 변화를 주는 불규칙한 음악이며, 서울굿 바리공주도 경기민요 회심곡과 마찬가지로 장단의 규칙을 찾을 수 없는 음악에 속한다. 음조직은 전형적인 경토리로 되어 있거나 경토리에 가깝다. 단, 화청회심곡의 경우 영남지방에서 전승되는 것은 메나리토리를, 호남지방에서 전승되는 것은 육자백이토리를 따른다. 선율진행 방식에 있어서, 화청회심곡과 서울굿 바리공주는 중간음역에서 담당하게 불려지지만 민요 회심곡은 고난이도의 도약진행, 고음진행, 당김음과 같은 리듬형의 변화로 세련미와 대중성을 가미하였다. 화청회심곡과 민요 회심곡은 반복구나 후렴구가 없이 통절형식으로 구송되는 반면, 서울굿바리공주의 음악적 형식은 긴 서사무가의 내용을 처음부터 끝까지 순차적으로 제시하는 것이 아니라 일정한 반복구를 삽입하여 단락을 구분하고 있다는 점이 특징적이다. 이러한 특성 때문에 서울굿 바리공주는 통절형식이 아니라 유절형식에 가깝다고 보았다. 이 연구는 음악적으로 ‘단순하다'고 인식되어 음악학 분야에서 자칫 소홀해지기 쉬운 음악이 사실은 모든 음악적 요소를 충실히 보유하고 있고, 단순함 속에 내재되어 있는 다양성을 확인했다는 점에서 의미가 있다. 회심곡, 서울굿 바리공주와 같은 형태의 음악은 병창, 제창, 메기고 받는 소리 등 여럿이 함께 부르는 노래에 비하여 음악의 본질과 원형을 파악하는데 효율적이기 때문에 향후에도 중요하게 다루어질 장르 중 하나다. This study is comparatie study about Hwesimgok and Barigongju in Seoul Gut; Shaman ritual in Seoul area, based on diversity of musical formations performed for many hours by vocal solo. It began from the supposition that they have something in common with their musical characteristics, because both of Hwesimgok and Barigongju are passed down through the area of Seoul and they have similar process of perform. But the result has several differences between Hwesimgok and Barigongju. Hwesimgok is Buddhist music with pure Korean lyrics, unlike Beompae, Buddhist music with Sanskrit. Kinds of Hwesimgok are Hwacheong Hwesimgok sung by buddhist monks and folk song style sung by folk musicians of Seoul area. While Barigongju transmissed by only shamans in Seoul. The method of perform is representative point of sameness. Both of them performed by vocal solo with self-accompaniment of percusion instruments. Difference is kinds of the instruments; Jing in Hwacheong Hwesimgok, Kwenggwari in folk song style of Hwesimgok, and small bells and Janggu in Barigongju. In rhythmic patterns, Hwacheong Hwesimgok has regular Jangdan Eonmori contrary to others; flok song style of Hwesimgok and Barigongju. The mode of these songs is Gyeong tori; style of folk song in Gyeogngi and Seoul area or similar Gyeong tori. Hwacheong Hwesimgok and Barigongju has the middle register of music and simple vocalism. Meanwhile, folk song style of Hwesimgok is sung with whole register of music containing high range and polished ornaments; for example skip and syncopation. Musical formations of Hwacheong Hwesimgok and folk song style of Hwesimgok is one verse with coherent story, but Barigongju has refrain of the same lyrics and melody. The result of this study shows that deemed monotonous music is well worth enough to shed new light. For vocal solo music like Hwesimgok and Barigongju is very important to find out the essences and origins of general music.

      • KCI등재

        Evaluation for Impacts of Nitrogen Source to Groundwater Quality in Livestock Farming Area

        Gyeong-Mi,Lee,Sunhwa,Park,Ki-In,Kim,Sang-Ho,Jeon,Dahee,Song,Deok-hyun,Kim,Tae-Seung,Kim,Seong-Taek,Yun,Hyen,Mi,Chung,Hyun-Koo,Kim 한국토양비료학회 2017 한국토양비료학회지 Vol.50 No.5

        We investigated 52 livestock farming complexes in Gyeong-Gi and Incheon provinces based on low, medium, and high livestock density and groundwater quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate a relationship between nitrate N concentration in groundwater and animal factors, such as livestock density and animal species. 2,200 groundwater samples for 3 years from 2012 to 2014 at Gyeong-Gi and Incheon provinces were collected and analyzed for pH, EC, DO, ORP, temperature, major anions and cations, such as NO₃-N, HCO₃<SUP>-</SUP>, PO₄<SUP>-</SUP>, SO₄<SUP>2-</SUP>, Cl<SUP>-</SUP>, NH₄-N, K<SUP>+</SUP>, Na<SUP>+</SUP>, Ca<SUP>2+</SUP>, Mg<SUP>2+</SUP>, T-N, and TOC. Average concentration of total N for generated load density was 23,973 g day<SUP>-1</SUP> km<SUP>-2</SUP> for cattle, 51,551 g day<SUP>-1</SUP> km<SUP>-2</SUP> for pig, and 52,100 g day<SUP>-1</SUP> km<SUP>-2</SUP> for poultry. For animal feeding species, average ratio for generated load over discharge load was 16.1% for cattle, 7.8% for pig, and 7.1% for poultry. Therefore, cattle feeding region is highly vulnerable for water pollution compared to pig and poultry feeding areas. The concentrations of chloride, nitrate, and total N in the groundwater samples were higher at high animal farming regions than other regions. The average concentration of nitrate, and chloride in groundwater samples was 5.0 mg L<SUP>-1</SUP>, 16.6 mg L<SUP>-1</SUP> for low livestock density, 6.9 mg L<SUP>-1</SUP>, 17.7 mg L<SUP>-1</SUP> for medium livestock density and 7.6 mg L<SUP>-1</SUP>, 22.7 mg L<SUP>-1</SUP> for high livestock density and total nitrogen (T-N) was 7.7 mg L<SUP>-1</SUP> for low livestock density, 9.4 mg L<SUP>-1</SUP> for medium livestock density, 10.7 mg L<SUP>-1</SUP> for high livestock density. In conclusion, based on this research, for managing groundwater quality near livestock farming regions, Ca-(Cl+NO₃) group from the Piper diagram is more efficient than using 19 factors for water quality standard.

      • KCI등재

        Allergenicity Change of Soybean Proteins by Thermal Treatment Methods

        Hui-Gyeong Seol(설희경), Yu-Jin Ko(고유진), Eun-Jung Kim(김은정), Gyeong-Lan Lee(이경란), Do-Gyeong Kim(김도경), Jeong-Ok Lee(이정옥), Kang-Mo Ahn(안강모), Chung-Ho Ryu(류충호) 한국생명과학회 2012 생명과학회지 Vol.22 No.4

        콩은 우리나라에서 과민성 알레르기를 일으키는 대표적인 식품 중의 하나로, 식품으로 섭취 시에 가열 및 발효가공을 통한 형태로 섭취한다. 이에 본 연구에서는 콩에 알레르기 반응을 일으키는 7명의 환아 혈청과 1명의 정상인 혈청을 이용하여 열처리 방법에 따른 품종별 콩(대풍, 대원, 태광)의 알레르기성에 미치는 영향을 조사하였다. 단백질을 추출하여 SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting 및 ELISA 방법을 통하여 반응성을 조사한 결과, SDS-PAGE상에서 열처리하지 않은 세가지 품종의 경우 9-76 kDa 위치에서 다양한 단백질 밴드를 보였는데 특히 9, 21, 34,52, 72 그리고 76 kDa의 단백질들은 각각 LTP, Kunits trypsin inhibitor, Gly m Bd 30K, β-conglycinin의 β-subunit, α-subunit와 α'-subunit로 주요한 콩 알레르겐으로 알려져 있다. 반면에 볶은 콩, 발효한 콩에서는 35kDa 이하로 완전히 분해되어 열처리 방법을 통해 단백의 항원성이 줄어드는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. IgE immunoblotting 을 통한 세 가지 품종의 볶은 콩과 콩 알레르기 환아 혈청과의 반응에서는 공통적으로 38-40kDa과 10-15 kDa에서 단백질 밴드를 보였으나 발효한 콩에서는 대부분 반응성이 약하거나 나타나지 않았다. ELISA 결과, immunoblotting 분석과 동일하게 대부분의 환아 혈청과 반응시에 볶은 콩과 발효한 콩에서 비교적 낮은 수치를 보였다. 결론적으로 콩에 존재하는 알레르겐 단백질은 열처리와 발효 미생물이 분비하는 단백질 분해효소에 의해 대부분의 환아에서 콩 단백질과의 반응성이 약화되는 것으로 사료된다. Soybean is one of the most common food materials causing food hypersensitivity reactions in Korea. In this study, we have investigated the effect of roasting and fermentation on the allergenicity of soybean. Three kinds of soybean (Daepung, Daewon, and Taegwang) were prepared as raw, roasted, and fermented by Bacillus subtilis GSK 3580, and then their proteins were extracted. The proteins were separated using SDS-PAGE, and the detection of IgE specific to soybean proteins was performed by immunoblotting using 7 sera of soybean allergy patients and non-allergic control individuals. Serum specific IgE to soybean was measured by ELISA. The SDS-PAGE of raw soybean proteins showed various-sized bands ranging from 9 to 76 kDa, which are known as major allergens. In particular, 9, 21, 34, 52, 72, and 76 kDa proteins are known as LTP, Kunits trypsin inhibitor, Gly m Bd 30K, β-subunit, α-subunit, and α'-subunit of β-conglycinin, respectively; these are major allergens in soybean. In contrast, only peptides of less than 35 kDa were found in roasted and fermented soybeans. IgE immunoblot analysis of three roasted species of soybeans commonly detected at 38-40 kDa and 10-15 kDa. The protein bands in fermented soybean showed very weak signals or were not detected. In addition, the reactivity of most patients' sera to soybean was decreased after roasting and fermentation. With these results, it may be concluded that the allergenicity of soybeans is reduced by the roasting and fermentation processes. It is supposed that allergenic proteins in soybean were degraded by heat treatment methods and proteolytic enzymes were secreted from fermenting microorganisms.

      • KCI등재

        Evaluation for Impacts of Nitrogen Source to Groundwater Quality in Livestock Farming Area

        Lee,,Gyeong-Mi,Park,,Sunhwa,Kim,,Ki-In,Jeon,,Sang-Ho,Song,,Dahee,Kim,,Deok-hyun,Kim,,Tae-Seung,Yun,,Seong-Taek,Chung,,Hyen,Mi,Kim,,Hyun-Koo 한국토양비료학회 2017 한국토양비료학회지 Vol.50 No.5

        We investigated 52 livestock farming complexes in Gyeong-Gi and Incheon provinces based on low, medium, and high livestock density and groundwater quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate a relationship between nitrate N concentration in groundwater and animal factors, such as livestock density and animal species. 2,200 groundwater samples for 3 years from 2012 to 2014 at Gyeong-Gi and Incheon provinces were collected and analyzed for pH, EC, DO, ORP, temperature, major anions and cations, such as $NO_3-N$, ${HCO_3}^-$, ${PO_4}^-$, ${SO_4}^{2-}$, $Cl^-$, $NH_4-N$, $K^+$, $Na^+$, $Ca^{2+}$, $Mg^{2+}$, T-N, and TOC. Average concentration of total N for generated load density was $23,973g\;day^{-1}\;km^{-2}$ for cattle, $51,551g\;day^{-1}\;km^{-2}$ for pig, and $52,100g\;day^{-1}\;km^{-2}$ for poultry. For animal feeding species, average ratio for generated load over discharge load was 16.1% for cattle, 7.8% for pig, and 7.1% for poultry. Therefore, cattle feeding region is highly vulnerable for water pollution compared to pig and poultry feeding areas. The concentrations of chloride, nitrate, and total N in the groundwater samples were higher at high animal farming regions than other regions. The average concentration of nitrate, and chloride in groundwater samples was $5.0mg\;L^{-1}$, $16.6mg\;L^{-1}$ for low livestock density, $6.9mg\;L^{-1}$, $17.7mg\;L^{-1}$ for medium livestock density and $7.6mg\;L^{-1}$, $22.7mg\;L^{-1}$ for high livestock density and total nitrogen (T-N) was $7.7mg\;L^{-1}$ for low livestock density, $9.4mg\;L^{-1}$ for medium livestock density, $10.7mg\;L^{-1}$ for high livestock density. In conclusion, based on this research, for managing groundwater quality near livestock farming regions, $Ca-(Cl+NO_3)$ group from the Piper diagram is more efficient than using 19 factors for water quality standard.

      • KCI등재

        朝鮮白磁 詩銘전접시 施文形式 硏究

        金京中(Kim Gyeong-jung) 湖西史學會 2011 역사와 담론 Vol.0 No.60

        The inscriptions of poems on saucers from the Joseon period are written in vertical lines from top to bottom or in lines radiating out from the center. Saucers with vertical lined poems were produced in the 15th and 16th centuries, and saucers with radial lined poems were produced in the 17th century. Several studies show that the shift from the former to the latter occurred in 1600 to 1636. They include a study on saucers with inscriptions of poems excavated from Cheongjin Distrct 8, a study on dating of saucers with inscriptions of poems in the collection of Samsung Museum of Art, comparative studies of shapes with saucers produced in the 17th century and review on old documents, and comparative studies with saucers excavated from Kiln Site No. 2-2 in Seondong-ri. As the works of the literati scholars Sim Su-gyeong and Sin Gwang-han show, the Joseon literati scholars ordered potters to produce saucers with poetic inscriptions in ways that satisfied individual's tastes. Study of old literature reveals that the poems were about such topics as wine drinking, which indicates that these saucers were wine vessels that were actually used at family events and drinking parties of the literati during the Joseon period. In addition to those used for wine, some saucers excavated from the site of the Royal Guards Command bear inscriptions of poems that were documentary, suggesting that they were used for documentary and decorative purposes. Gyeonhan jamnok, collection of essays by Sim Su-gyeong, indicates when saucers with inscriptions of poems excavated from Cheongjin District 8 were produced and how the royal kilns were operated in the late 16th century. Baekjujip, written by Yi Myeong-han, suggests that the saucers with inscriptions of poems in the collection of Samsung Museum of Art were made between 1640 and 1648. Gyujeongjip. All these documents remind us that literary works by individual writers during the Joseon period are very important references that inform us about the transition in arrangement of poems and the function of saucers.

      • KCI등재

        전투력 요소로 본 이순신의 전투준비태세와 초기전투 승리요인

        이경식(Lee, Gyeong-sig) 국방부 군사편찬연구소 2016 군사 Vol.- No.98

        This study focuses on how General Lee achieved continuous victories in the beginning of Japanese invasion. Unlike previous studies that focused on the victory factors on the water, this study focuses on analyses of General Lee's combat preparation and emphasized combat capability during initial stages of battles, which defeated Japanese forces. The background of General Lee's substantial war preparation came from the battle of Japanese invasion led by Hong-Yang in the Year of Jeong-Hae (1587). By developing the foundation for discipline and commanding system based on the past experience, Lee focused on creative, yet stuck to the basic war-preparation. One of Lee's creative works was that he collected information of Japanese combat style to create his battle strategies: to deny enemy"s climbing up the warship, but to be close enough to target enemy ships with turtle ships, and to inspect the war preparations. For the war preparations, Lee inspected ships, various weapons, and defense system on the field. But most importantly, Lee's victorious background originated from his nationally scaled propulsion for increasing the number of war-ships, development of cannons specially designed for battles against Japanese forces. When the actual Lim-Gin Japanese invasion occurred, Lee was fully prepared to go to the war against Japan by utilizing the effective reporting system, which reached to Right naval HQ located in Jeon-Ra provinces, observatory posts, and central government in a very short time. Lee also prepared for all possible routes of Japanese incomings and settled his navy on sea of Gyeong-Sang waiting for the imminent battle command from the government. In order to execute Command & Control system in the battle at the sea of Gyeong-Sang, Lee required strict command system, and hierarchy with Won-Gyun and Uk-Gi Lee's fleet, which allowed well-coordinated strategic system. Also, strategy integrated intelligence, maneuver, fires, and force protections against Japanese Force. First, spot the enemy, approach with fleets during earl dawn when security is assured, then charge with turtle ships and full-on assailment of cannons with Pan-Ok ships to defeat Japanese Navy. After such strategy, Lee quickly ran away from the battle scene in order to prepare for the possible ambush attacks and buy some maintenance time for his navy. In summary, Lee achieved the victory via analyzing Japanese Navy's current status, geography, water current, surround and attack strategy, ambush attacks, and effective maneuvers, which integrated with turtle ships and navy's fire power. He also inspected his forces, fleets, and other weapons to sustain his combat capabilities. He distributed loots from the battles to his soldiers to alleviate their fear and fatigue. The most important victory factor would be Lee's victory oriented leadership. His leadership highlighted field focused operations, principles, executions, and keen discernment, which contributed to flexible strategies, all with courage, fairness, people and his navy. In order to win the war, combat capability had to be performed at its best, and Lee's victories at the initial battles exemplify preparation for the war and successful coordination of combat capability with his leadership in the naval battles.

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