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Recent interaction research has shown that corrective feedback may benefit L2 learners to varying degrees, and that certain types of feedback may be more beneficial than others, engendering much discussion and research attempts to investigate the issue. Goo`s (2012) study is one of those empirical attempts conducted in this line of research paradigm. The present study, as a conceptual replication of Goo`s original study, explores this on-going area of feedback research, the relative efficacy of different forms of corrective feedback, and whether/how phonological short-term memory (PSTM) mediates the impact of different feedback moves on the acquisition of the English that-trace filter. Twenty-nine adult high-intermediate Korean EFL learners were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a recast, metalinguistic feedback, and comparison groups. The study employed a pretest-posttest design. One intensive treatment session was implemented. Two dependent variable measures were developed/administered to assess learner performance: a timed grammaticality judgment test and a timed oral production test. Overall results showed that metalinguistic feedback was more effective than recasts at facilitating the acquisition of the target construction. PSTM was not found to be correlated with the effectiveness of recasts and metalinguistic feedback. Different patterns of learner performance were also observed depending upon the mode of dependent variable measure.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) includes vasopressor neurons, which transmit activation signals to the intermediolateral nucleus (IML) of the spinal cord, where the preganglionic sympathetic nucleus is located, to raise arterial blood pressure (BP). However, controversy exists as to the possible depressor area in the RVLM and the pathway involved. The present study persued evidence far the location of depressor neurons and the pathway by simultaneously observing changes in BP and the firing rate (FR) of cardiovascular neurons (CVNs) in the RVLM during the somatosympathetic reflex (SSR) elicited by peripheral nerve stimulation, since CVNs are known to contribute to the generation of the sympathetic nerve discharge. In 42 cats, anaesthetized with α-chloralose, single unit recording was performed, using carbon filament electrodes inserted into the RVLM, enabling estimation of the post R wave unit histogram (PR-UNlT) and the spike triggered average of sympathetic nerve discharge (STA-SND), allowing identification of CVNs. Antidromic stimulation of spinal T<sub>2</sub> segment was followed to determine whether the identified CVN projects axonal endings to the spinal cord (reticulospinal neuron). The sciatic nerve was electrically stimulated at AΔ-intensity (1 mA, 0.1 ms), 1 Hz and C-intensity (10 mA, 0.5 ms), 20 Hz to elicit the depressor, and pressor responses of the SSR, respectively. Simultaneous measurement of CVN firing rate was made. Experimental results are summarized as follows. 1) 20 out of 98 CVNs had axonal projections to the spinal cord and 17 out of 98 CVNs showed FR changes during SSR. 2) Response patterns of FR and BP during SSR were classified into 8 types. 3) These 8 different response patterns could be further classified into those from pressor and depressor neurons. These results demonstrate that some CVNs were identifiable as reticulospinal neurons responding to anti-dromic stimulation and that CVNs operating as depressor neurons as well as pressor neurons exist in the RVLM, both of which are involved with SSR mediation. Therefore, evidence was found that an independent depressor pathway might be involved in the mediation of SSR.
Poster Presentation : 3,4-di(OH)-hydrocinnamate Inhibit Atherogenesis by the Inhibition of Acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase in Cholesterol Fed Rabbit and Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Knock-out Mice
<P>This study extends the view that formal contracts and relational governance function as complements rather than as substitutes. We investigate how specific characteristics of service level agreements (SLAs) impact relational governance in information technology outsourcing relationships. Eleven contractual elements (categorized into three SLA characteristics: foundation, change, and governance characteristics) are hypothesized to act as complements of three relational governance attributes: relational norms, harmonious conflict resolution, and mutual dependence. Data for the study were collected through a survey of South Korean IT executives. Results of the study support the fundamental proposition of complementarity between formal contracts and relational governance, and indicate that well-structured SLAs have significant positive influence on the various aspects of relational governance in IT outsourcing relationships. However, the study also reveals that change characteristics of SLAs may act as a substitute for relational governance as these characteristics were found to dampen the level of trust and commitment through moderation effects. Overall, the findings support the proposition that well-developed SLAs not only provide a way to measure the service provider's performance, but also enable effective management of outsourcing engagements through the development of partnership-style relationships with high levels of trust and commitment.</P>
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
Developmental disability shows life-long behavioral abnormality with no significant physical malformation. This study was undertaken to develop an animal model for developmental disability by using two-factor approach. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial toxin, and NAN-190, a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, were administered to Sprague-Dawley rats on postnatal day (PND) 5 to induce inflammation and an altered 5-HT system, respectively. Long-term alteration of behavior occurred in the drug-treated groups. The LPS-treated group showed impaired motor coordination in the Rota-rod test. The LPS- treated or both LPS and NAN-190-treated groups showed impaired fore-paw muscle power in the wire maneuver test. These groups also showed decreased white matter volume and increased serotonergic fibers. The LPS and NAN-190-treated group also exhibited neurologic deficit in the placing reaction test and impaired equilibrium function in the tilt table test. The results showed that a variety of altered behaviors can be generated by two factor model, and suggested that combination of important etiologic factors and possible underlying defects is a promising strategy of establishing an animal model for developmental disabilities.
Traction of trains is due to the rolling contact of the wheel on the rail, and the rolling contact is fundamental to an understanding of the behavior of the railroad system. The way in which the forces are transmitted in the rolling contact is complex and highly nonlinear. This paper presents rolling contact phenomena of the wheel on the rail, creepages on the wheel/rail contacts, and creep force models. The validity of the proposed models is verified through simulation study using Simulink for the tilting train, Hanvit-200 (TTX).
이 글은 1920년대 초반 식민지 조선에서 사회주의가 유행처럼 번져나갈 수 있었던 근본적 이유를 새로운 내면의 탄생이라는 흐름에서 살펴보았다. 3ㆍ1운동의 실패와 계속되는 서구열강들의 조선에 대한 정치적 무관심은 식민지 지식인들로 하여금 자기의 행복이라는 문제로 관심을 돌리게 만들었다. 그리하여 1920년대 초반 행복 담론이 급증하게 되는데, 이것은 개인의 위치가 재조정되는 과정이기도 했다. 당대의 지식인들은 개인의 행복을 위해 다양한 이론과 개념들을 차용했다. 그중에서 이 글은 노동개념이 부르주아 담론과 사회주의적 담론에서 공유되면서도 어떻게 차이를 보이는지를 살펴보았다. 이 과정에서 부르주아의 행복 담론이 사회와 민족의 발전을 위해 “도덕주의”에 입각하여 개인의 내면을 통제하고자 했으며, 사회주의적 행복 담론은 “윤리”를 강조하며 자기반성의 지식으로서 “사회주의”를 수용했음을 확인할 수 있었다. 사회주의를 이념사의 차원이 아니라 정신사의 영역에서 살펴보는 작업은 사회주의의 이념적 성격을 부정하는 것이 아니라, 그것이 당대의 민중들에게 강력한 영향력을 미치는 계기들을 살펴보는 작업이다. 이러한 점에서 1920년대 초반 국한된 논의이기는 하지만 사회주의와 윤리적 내면의 탄생이라는 현상은 본격적인 논의를 기다리고 있다. 이 글은 이를 위한 첫걸음에 불과할 뿐이다. The purpose of this article is to examine the fundamental reason that socialism could be flourishing like a fashion in the early 1920 of the Joseon Dynasty period, from the viewpoint of the advent of the inside. The failure of the Samil Undong and the continuous political negligence of Western powers about Joseon caused the intellectual of the colony to make them pay attention to their own happiness. In the early 1920s, happiness discourses were rapidly increasing, which was a restructuring course of individual position. The intellectual borrowed various theses and concepts for personal happiness. Of those, this article was to investigate how the concept of labor could share with discussion of bourgeois and social discussion and what difference it made between the two ideologies. In this context, it was ascertained that bourgeois' discussion of happiness tried to control individual's inside based on 'moralism' for development of the society and the nation, and discussion of social happiness underlined 'ethics' and accepted 'socialism' as knowledge of self?reflection. A process to find out socialism not from the ideological standpoint but from the spiritual viewpoint does not deny ideological characteristics of socialism but examines opportunities having a great influence on the people. At this point of view, although it is discussion limited to the early 1920s, the advent of socialism and the ethnical inside awaits the active discussion. This article is only the first step for that.
To replace hazardous methyl bromide (MB) post-fumigation on imported fruits, due to insufficient ventilation process in industrial practice, alternative fumigation with liquid ethyl formate (EF) with N2 application, which is multi benefits to safe to workplace and environment, has been developed by APQA. Although EF was found to be shown proven efficacy to invasive external feeders such as mealybugs and scales on export and imported fruits and vegetables, there was still some conflicts to accept one of the phytosanitary disinfestation method somewhere because of on reliable and confirmative studies on between MB and EF in terms of efficacy to mealybugs on perishable commodities. In here, we evaluated comparative efficacy of EF and MB to target citrus mealybug, which was seems to be hard control pest, based on the current disinfestation guideline of them in Korea. The potential benefits of using liquid ethyl formate (EF) for future quarantine use could provide for safer workplace involved on and post-fumigation such as cold and packing storages, cost-effectiveness as well as meet the environmental friendly solution.
본 논문에서는 방송에 사용되는 주파수 이용 현황을 조사, 분석하였다. 주파수 이용 기본 정비 방안과 세부추진 방안을 분석하여 바람직한 활용방안을 제시하였다. 주파수 할당을 위한 경매 제도를 분석하여 DTV 스펙트럼의 재활용 방안으로서의 적합성을 검토하였다. DTV의 리턴채널 가능성도 분석하였다. 분석한 결과를 토대로 3가지 활용방안을 제시하고 각 방안의 장단점도 언급하였다.