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Let $IB_n$ be the set of all irreducible matrices in $B_n$ and let $SIB_n$ be the set of all symmetric matrices in $IB_n$. Finding an upper bound for the set of indices of matrices in $IB_n$ and $SIB_n$ and determining gaps in the set of indices of matrices in $IB_n$ and $SIB_n$ has been studied by many researchers. In this paper, we establish a best upper bound for the set of weak exponents of indecomposability of matrices in $SIB_n\;and\;IB_n$, and show that there does not exist a gap in the set of weak exponents of indecomposability for any of class $SIB_n\;and\;class\;IB_n$.
This paper presents experimental research and finite element analysis (FEA) on a new type of frame wall that has fiber cement pressure (FCP) panel as sheathing. Some new structural details for the connection and energy conservation are proposed. In order to evaluate the bending capacity of the FCP frame wall, eight specimens with the parameters of stud spacing, connection styles, window opening, and loading sides were tested under uniformly distributed loads. The measurements of each material property were taken before the bending tests. Failure modes, load-deformation curves, and the strain of some key points were all obtained. The results indicate that the designed parameters affected the ultimate bearing capacity and failure mode of the specimens. Moreover, a non-linear FE model was made and verified against the tests. Results of FEA agree well with the experiment in failure modes and load-deformation curves. Therefore, FEA was confirmed as reliable for the prediction of the loading process. Finally, extended parametric analysis of FCP frame wall was conducted.
A frequency modulated ultra-wideband (FM-UWB) transmitter with a high-robust relaxation oscillator for subcarrier generation and a dual-path Ring VCO for RF FM is proposed, featuring low power and low complexity. A prototype 3.65-4.25 GHz FM-UWB transceiver employing the presented transmitter is fabricated in 0.18 μm CMOS for shortrange wireless data transmission. Experimental results show a bit error rate (BER) of 10<SUP>?6</SUP> at a data rate of 12.5 kb/s with a communication distance of 60 cm is achieved and the power dissipation of 4.3 mW for the proposed transmitter is observed from a 1.8 V supply.
α-Glucosidase is a crucial enzyme for the production of isomaltooligosaccharide. In this study, a novel method comprising eosin Y (EY) and α-D-methylglucoside (AMG) in glass plates was tested for the primary screening of α-glucosidaseproducing strains. First, α-glucosidase-producing Aspergillus niger strains were selected on plates containing EY and AMG based on transparent zone formation resulting from the solubilization of EY by the hydrolyzed product. Conventional methods that use trypan blue (TB) and p-nitrophenyl-α-Dglucopyranoside (pPNP) as indicators were then compared with the new strategy. The results showed that EY-containing plates provide the advantages of low price and higher specificity for the screening of α-glucosidase-producing strains. We then evaluated the correlation between the hydrolytic activity of α-glucosidase and diffusion distance, and found that good linearity could be established within a 6–75 U/ml enzyme concentration range. Finally, the hydrolytic and transglycosylation activities of α-glucosidase obtained from the target isolates were determined by EY plate assay and 3,5- dinitrosalicylic acid-Saccharomyces cerevisiae assay, respectively. The results showed that the diameter of the transparent zone varied among isolates was positively correlated with α-glucosidase hydrolytic activity, while good linearity could also be established between α-glucosidase transglycosylation activity and non-fermentable reducing sugars content. With this strategy, 7 Aspergillus niger mutants with high yield of α-glucosidase from 200 obvious single colonies on the primary screen plate were obtained.
A low-power low-cost polar transmitter for EDGE is designed in 0.18μm CMOS. A differential delta-sigma modulator (DSM) tunes a three-terminal voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) to perform RF phase modulation, where the VCO tuning curve is digitally pre-compensated for high linearity and the carrier frequency is calibrated by a dual-mode lowpower frequency-locked loop (FLL). A digital intermediate-frequency (IF) pulse-width5 modulator (PWM) drives a complementary power-switch followed by an LC filter to achieve envelope modulation with high efficiency. The proposed transmitter with 9mW power dissipation relaxes the time alignment between the phase and envelope modulations, and achieves an error vector magnitude (EVM) of 4% and phase noise of ?123dBc/Hz at 400kHz offset frequency.
A CMOS relaxation oscillator, with high robustness over process, voltage and temperature (PVT) variations, is designed in 0.18 μm CMOS. The proposed oscillator, consisting of full-differential charge-discharge timing circuit and switchedcapacitor based voltage-to-current conversion, could be expanded to a simple open-loop frequency synthesizer (FS) with output frequency digitally tuned. Experimental results show that the proposed oscillator conducts subcarrier generation for frequency-modulated ultra-wideband (FM-UWB) transmitters with triangular amplitude distortion less than 1%, and achieves frequency deviation less than 8% under PVT and phase noise of ?112 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset frequency. Under oscillation frequency of 10.5 MHz, the presented design has the relative FS error less than 2% for subcarrier generation and the power dissipation of 0.6 mW from a 1.8 V supply.
Gibberellins (GAs) are endogenous hormones that play an important role in regulating plant stature by increasing cell division and promoting seed germination. The GA2-oxidase gene from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtGA2ox8) was introduced into Brassica napus L. by Agrobacterium-mediated floral-dip transformation with the aim of decreasing the amount of bioactive GA and hence reduced the plant height. As anticipated, the transgenic plant exhibited dwarf phenotype. Importantly, compared with the wild type, the transgenic plants had delayed the seed germination, increased the chlorophyll content (28.7–36.3%) and photosynthesis capacity (14.3–18.7%) in a single leaf. At the same time, the photosynthesis capacity of the whole plants was significantly enhanced (35.7–48.6%) due to the extra leaves and branches.
The phase transformation temperatures of shape memory alloys were determined through a DSC test. A theoretical model of martensite transformation for shape memory alloys was developed based on the DSC results. Particularly, the peak temperatures during the phase transformations were considered in this model, which were not done in all previous models. The proposed model was verified to describe the behaviors of phase transformation of shape memory alloys more precisely than the previous models. Numerical examples were shown the capability of this model compared to Liang's model.