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The tiny dragonfly, Nannophya pygmaea (Odonata: Libellulidae) is one the smallest dragonflies in the world and listed as a second-degree endangered wild animal in Korea. We developed microsatellite markers and applied selected markers to South Korean populations to understand population genetic characteristics, along with two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene sequences (COI and ND5). Two mtDNA-based population genetic analysis indicates substantially reduced genetic diversity in an island population (Muuido) compared to others. On the other hand, population-based FST and RST consistently support that N. pygmaea populations are overall well interconnected with a relatively high gene flow. These results may collectively indicate that N. pygmaea populations in South Korea may have rather larger population size than we previously acknowledged based on a single-locus mtDNA sequence and field observation.
The Scarites aterrimus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) dwells exclusively on coastal sandy dunes. Previously, we investigated the nation-wide magnitude and nature of genetic diversity of the species using mitochondrial COI gene and found moderate to low magnitude of sequence diversity, the presence of closely related haplotypes, and relatively high gene flow estimate. Based on these observations we concluded that the species had no historical barriers that bolster genetic subdivision and possible population decline. In this study, we additionally sequenced mitochondrial COII gene from 23 individuals collected from 9 Korean localities to confirm previous findings. Sequencing of 688 bp COII gene provided 5 haplotypes ranging in sequence divergence from 0.145% to 0.291% (1 ~ 2 bp), further confirming low sequence divergence of the species. Gene flow estimates and genetic diversity estimates also support the previous findings that there had been no historical barriers that bolster genetic subdivision.
The purpose of this study is to assess the sanitation level and purchase behavior of fishery products, and to identify management conditions of bad smell from cooking fish at home as perceived by housewives in a metropolitan area. Frequency analysis, descriptive analysis, and cross-tabulation analysis were employed as statistical techniques for current study. Total 270 were collected from housewives. The statistical variables included the kinds of cooking oil and the age of housewives, the types of hoods for fish roasting, the types of covers for fish grills, the number of family, the ventilation methods, and the maintenance of kitchen utensils based on family incomes, and they showed statistically significant differences(p<.05). Furthermore, the housewives whose sanitary cognition level for fishery products was high, the housewives whose level of purchase attitude was relatively high, and the housewives who utilized specialized kitchen utensils demonstrated statistically significant differences(p<.05). It resulted from the assessment of such actual conditions as difference of culinary environment according to the sanitation level of fishery products, the level of purchase attitude, and whether the housewives utilized special kitchen utensils or not. The more efforts were proved from those who had the intentions for improvement of an amenable culinary environment at homes, according to the higher income obtainers, the smaller nuclear family, the younger generation, whether the housewives utilized special kitchen utensils or not, and those who had the higher sanitary cognition level of fishery products. The above results were derived from an individual lifestyle or a dietary lifestyle, but eventually this seems to be related with the propensity and values hierarchy of individuals.
We sequenced complete mitochondrial genomes (mt genomes) of four Apis species, such as A. cerana, A. dorsata, A. laboriosa, and A. mellifera ligustica. The A. m. ligustica used in this study was originated from United States and selected for a high hygienic behavior during several years of breeding program. Considering current phylogenetic hypothesis of Apis the positive relationships between phylogeny and gene rearrangement was not supported. Phylogenetic reconstruction using available Apoidea species has shown the relationships ((Apidae + Colletidae) + Crabronidae). Within Apis, a strong support for three groups was obtained: A. florea and A. andreniformis as a basal group to the other A. cerana and A. mellifera group and A. dorsata and A. laboriosa group. The test to find out suitable single mt gene for the phylogeny at the genus level and below-genus level of Apis provided an identical topology from ND4L and ND6 in the ML analysis and ND3 and NF4L in the BI analysis to that from whole mt genome, with relatively strong support, indicating that these individual genes can potentially be utilized for within-species level phylogeny of Apis.
The Scarites aterrimus (Coleoptera: Carabidae), is one of the carabid beetles dwelling exclusively on coastal sandy dunes. Habitat deterioration and equivalent activity have greatly concerned population declines in several species dwelling on the coastal sandy dunes. As a first step to establish long-term conservation strategy, we investigated the nation-wide magnitude and nature of genetic diversity of the species. As a first step, we sequenced a portion of mitochondrial COI gene, corresponding to "DNA Barcode" region (658 bp) from a total of 24 S. aterrimus individuals collected over nine sandy dunes belonging to four Korean provinces. The sequence analysis evidenced moderate to low magnitude of sequence diversity compared with other insect species distributed in Korean peninsula (0.152% to 0.912%). The presence of closely related haplotypes and relatively high gene flow estimate collectively suggest that there had been no historical barriers that bolster genetic subdivision. Population decline was postulated on the basis of several missing haplotypes that are well found in the species with a large population size. This interpretation is consistent with field observation of small population size in the coastal sandy dune habitats. The highest genetic diversity estimates were found in the coastal sand dune population of Seogwipo, Jeju Island, justifying a prior attention to the population, in order to sustain overall genetic diversity of the species. Further scrutinized study might be required for further robust conclusion.
The tiny dragonfly, Nannophya pygmaea (Odonata: Libellulidae), is an endangered insect in South Korea. Previously, a partial mitochondrial DNA sequence that corresponded to a DNA barcoding region has been used to infer genetic diversity and gene flow. In this study, we additionally sequenced the barcoding region from N. pygmaea that had been collected from three previously sampled populations (40 individuals) and these sequences were combined with the preexisting data. We also selected and sequenced an additional mitochondrial gene (ND5) to find further variable gene regions in the mitochondrial genome. DNA barcoding sequences of 108 individuals from five South Korean localities showed that genetic diversity was highest in Gangjin, Jeollanam-do Province. Muuido, which was previously occupied by a single haplotype, was also found to have an identical haplotype, which confirmed the low genetic diversity on this islet. Gene flow among populations is highly limited, and no clear distance- or region-based geographic partitioning was observed. Phylogenetic relationships among haplotypes showed that there were no discernable haplotypes in South Korea. ND5 provided slightly more haplotypes compared to the barcoding region in 40 individuals (14 vs. 10 haplotypes in the COI gene). It also had a slightly higher within-locality diversity estimate, which suggested that ND5 had potential as mitochondrial DNA-based marker for population genetic analysis.
In the present study, the 17,694-bp long complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the dwarf honey bee, Apis florea (Hymenoptera: Apidae), is described with an emphasis on the noteworthy triplicated tRNAser(AGN) region and an extraordinary long A+T-rich region with repeat regions. The gene arrangement of A. florea mitogenome is identical to that of A. mellifera, but has triplicated tRNASer(AGN), each of which contains the precedent 44 bp-long and following another 64 bp-long repeats plus one complete first repeat abutting to tRNAMet. A total of 1,610-bp long two repeat regions in 1,987 bp-long A+T-rich region is composed of nearly identical 141 ~ 219-bp long five tandem repeats and 50 ~ 52-bp long 12 tandem repeats that are encompassed by three non-repeat sequences. One of the common interpretations for such repeat sequence is slipped-strand mispairing and unequal crossing-over events during DNA replication.
The Acoptolabrus changeonleei Ishikawa et Kim, 1983 (Coleoptera: Carabidae), has been listed as an endangered insect in South Korea. The complete mitochondrial genome of the species was 16,831 bp with a typical set of genes (13 protein-coding genes [PCGs], 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes) and one non-coding region, with the arrangement identical to that observed in most insect genomes. Phylogenetic analyses with concatenated sequences of the 13 PCGs and 2 rRNA genes, using the Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum-likelihood (ML) methods, placed A. changeonleei as a sister to the within-subfamilial species Damaster mirabilissimus in Carabinae, with the highest nodal support by both analyses.
The honey bee, Apis mellifera ligustica (Hymenoptera: Apidae), strain with a high hygienic behavior (HHB) has been bred for several years in Korea, and a diagnosis system to distinguish it from low hygienic behavior (LHB) strain has been necessitated. Thus, complete mitogenome of the two strains were sequenced through Next-Generation Sequencing technique to detect SNPs. Comparison of the mitogenome sequences from the two strains of A. m. ligustica have detected 23 SNPs in 11 PCGs and these were further confirmed the presence of SNPs using each 10 individuals selected randomly from each strain, indicating that these SNP markers might be useful to diagnose the honeybee strains with the HHB. Therefore, mitogenome sequences are promising genome source to detect SNP markers, particularly for inbred female iso-lines.