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2011년 안동과 진주의 마 재배포장에서 줄기 지제부 및 괴근썩음 증상이 나타났다. 병징을 나타내는 부위로부터 Rhizoctonia 와 유사 속에 속하는 20개 균주가 분리되었다. rDNA-internal transcribed spacer(ITS) 염기서열 상동성을 기초로 8균주는 Rhizoctonia solani, 12균주는 Ceratobasidium sp.로 동정되었다. rDNA- ITS 염기서열의 cluster 분석에 의해 R. solani에 속하는 8개 균주 중 7개 균주는 균사융 합군 AG 2-2IIIB, 1균주는 AG 1-1A에 속하였다. 또한, Ceratobasidium sp.에 속하는 12균주 중 7균주는 AG-Fa, 3균주는 AG-A, 나머지 2균주는 각각 AG-Fb와 AG-O에 속하였다. R. solani AG 2-2IIIB 균주들은 마의 줄기와 괴근에 병원성이었으나 R. solani AG 1-1A와 모든 Ceratobasidium sp, 균주는 비병원성이라는 것이 확인되었다, 이 결과는 조사지역에서 R. solani AG 2-2IIIB가 마의 줄기 및 괴근썩음병을 일으키는 중요한 병원균이라는 것을 나타낸다. 이 연구는 국내에서 R. solani AG 2-2IIIB에 의한 마 뿌리썩음병에 대하여 처음으로 보고하는 것이다. Stem canker and tuber rot symptoms were observed on yam grown in Andong and Jinju, Korea in 2011. A total of 20 isolates of Rhizoctonia and allied fungi were obtained from the symptomatic plants. Among the isolates, 8 isolates were identified as Rhizoctonia solani and 12 isolates as Ceratobasidium sp. based on rDNAinternal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence similarity. In the cluster analysis of rDNA-ITS sequences, 7 isolates of R. solani belonged to AG 2-2IIIB and remaining one to AG 1-1A. In addition, among the 12 isolates of Ceratobasidium sp., 7 isolates belonged to AG-Fa, three isolates to AG-A and the other two isolates to AG-Fb and AGO, respectively. Pathogenicity tests showed that all the R. solani AG 2-2IIIB isolates are pathogenic on stem and tuber of yam but R. solani AG 1-1A and all the Ceratobasidium isolates are non-pathogenic. The results indicate that R. solani AG 2-2IIIB is an important pathogen causing stem canker and tuber rot on yams grown in the study areas. This is the first report of R. solani AG 2-2IIIB causing stem canker and tuber rot of yam in Korea.
Gray mold symptoms were frequently observed on green twigs, blossoms, leaves, and fruits of blueberry trees grown in greenhouses in Cheongyang, Dangjin, Daejeon, and Jeju during disease survey in eight locations of Korea from 2007 to 2010. The disease symptoms were not observed in the fields of the other locations investigated. The disease incidence ranged 1~30% in the greenhouses investigated. A total of 27 single spore isolates of Botrytis species were obtained from the gray mold symptoms, and all the isolates were identified as Botrytis cinerea based on their morphological and cultural characteristics. Four isolates of the fungus were tested for pathogenicity to leaves of four varieties of blueberry trees by artificial inoculation with conidial suspensions. All the tested isolates caused gray mold symptoms on the leaves, which were similar to those observed in the greenhouses. This is the first report that B. cinerea causes gray mold of blueberry trees grown in greenhouses in Korea.
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Incidence of Fusarium wilt was surveyed in fields of summer radish in Gangwon province in Korea in 2018 and 2019. The disease started in early July and spread rapidly in hot summer of late July and August and in severe case, reached up to 80% in a field in Gangneung area. Symptoms in the seedling stage include poor growth and browning of internal tissue of root. During mid-growth, the leaves of diseased plant turned yellow over time, the surface of the roots changed from white to blackish, and the vascular tissues turned brown. A total of 23 isolates was obtained from the diseased plants and identified as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani by elongation factor-1a and intergenic spacer sequence analysis. Pathogenicity of the isolates was tested by artificial inoculation to the radish and other plants. All the isolates tested were pathogenic to radish plant, although there were differences in virulence on radish 11 cultivars. However, the isolates were not virulent to other plants except some cruciferous vegetables including Brussels sprouts, rocket, stock, and turnip. The results of pathogenicity test showed that it is necessary to rotate with crops other than cruciferous vegetables in order to prevent Fusarium wilt from radish fields. 2018년과 2019년에 강원도 여름 재배 무 포장에서 시들음병 발생이 조사되었다. 시들음병은 7월 상순 발생했고, 7월 하순과 8월 뜨거운 여름에 급속히 확산되었으며, 심한 경우, 일부 포장에서는 80%까지 발생하였다. 유묘기에 병든 무는 생육이 불량하고 뿌리 내부조직이 갈변되었다. 생육중기 동안시간이 지나면서 병든 잎은 황화되고 뿌리표면은 흰색에서흑색으로 변색되고, 도관조직은 갈변하였다. 병든 식물체로부터 23개 Fusarium균이 분리되었고, EF-1α와 IGS 염기서열 분석에 의해 Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani로 동정되었다. 무와 다른 작물에 대한 인공접종에 의해 병원성이 검정되었다. 11개 품종 간에 차이는 있었으나 모든 균주들은 무에서 병원성이었다. 그러나 로켓, 방울양배추, 스토크, 순무를 포함하는 배추과 작물을 제외하고는 병원성이 없었다. 병원성 검정결과는 무 포장에서 시들음병을 방제하기 위해서는 배추과채소 이외의 작물로 돌려짓기하는 것이 필요하다는 것을 나타낸다.
국내의 수수재배는 주로 소면적으로 이루어지며, 대부분 식용이나 사료용으로 사용되고 있다. 2007년부터 2009년까지 전국의 수수 재배 포장을 조사한 결과, 이삭에 곰팡이가 발생하는 증상을 다수 관찰하였다. 병징은 매우 다양한데, 심하게 감염된 이삭의 경우 곰팡이가 발생하였고, 부분적으로 감염된 경우에는 수수 종실이 변색되거나 불임립이 형성되었다. 총 90개의 Fusarium균을 분리하였으며, 형태적 ·배양적 특성 조사에 의한 동정 결과, F. thapsinum이 41개, F. proliferatum이 23개, F. graminearum이 12개 분리 되었으며, F. incarnatum과 F.equiseti가 각각 5개, 3개 분리되었다. Elongation factor 1 alpha 유전자의 염기분서을 이용한 계통분석 결과, 대부분이 NCBI GenBank에 등록된 각 유전자와 일치하는 결과를 나타냈다. 분리된 병원균의 병원성 검정 결과, 우점종인 F. thapsinum, F. proliferatum, F. graminearum종이 병원성이 강한 것으로 조사되었다. 이 연구는 Fusarium균에 의해 발생한 수수 이삭곰팡이증상에 대한 첫 번째 보고이다. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench) was traditionally grown on a small scale, however, at present its cultivation is getting momentum in terms of food and animal feed crop throughtout the Korea. Grain mold symptoms of the plant were frequently observed during disease surveys in Korea from 2007 to 2009. The symptoms were highly variable. Severely infected grain was fully covered with mold and partially infected grain may look normal or discolored. Ninety isolates of Fusarium species were obtained from the diseased plants collected from several locations in the country. Among the collected Fusarium isolates, 41 were identified as Fusarium thapsinum, 23 as F. proliferatum, 12 as F. graminearum, 5 as F. incarnatum, and 3 as F. equiseti based on their morphological and cultural characteristics. Elongation factor 1 alpha gene sequences of the isolates were used for phylogenetic analysis. Analyses of the sequences revealed that the isolates were confirmed to be identical with related species of NCBI GenBank. Pathogenicity tests showed that three dominant species, F. thapsinum, F. proliferatum and F. graminearum were strongly virulent to grains of sorghum. This study is the first report of sorghum grain mold caused by Fusarium species in Korea.
Downy mildew commonly occurred in six of seven locations investigated in Korea during disease survey performed in 2007 and 2008. This report provides screened results on resistance of Korean varieties of rape to downy mildew in the field.
In June 2013, surface rot symptoms were observed on sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) in Yeoju city, Korea. The lesions were circular, light to dark brown, firm, dry, and superficial. The diseased area became sunken in older tissues, and the symptoms usually did not extend deeply into the flesh. Seven isolates of Fusarium species were isolated from diseased sweet potatoes. All isolates were identified as Fusarium oxysporum based on morphological characteristics on CLA medium. To confirm the identification, molecular analysis of elongation factor 1 alpha gene was conducted. Among the isolates, however, four isolates were F. commune, and three isolates were F. oxysporum based on the DNA sequence data. Pathogenicity was tested using agar block inoculation on wounded or unwounded sweet potato pieces. Lesions were observed on wounded sweet potato pieces after7 days inoculation in only F. commune isolates. This is the first report that F. commune causes Fusarium surface rot of sweet potato in Korea.
In August 2013, brown rot was observed on cherry fruits (Prunus avium L.) in Hwaseong city, Korea. Fruit rot first appears as small, circular brown spots that increase rapidly in size causing the entire fruit to rot. Grayish spores appear in tufts on rotted areas. Based on these morphological characteristics, the two isolates were identified as Monilinia fructicola. Molecular analysis of 5.8S subunit and flanking internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) was performed to confirm the identification. The ITS sequences had 100% identity with those of other reference M. fructicola isolates of NCBI GenBank. Pathogenicity was tested using spore suspension inoculation on wounded or unwounded cherry fruits. The lesions were observed on wounded and unwounded fruits after inoculation for 7 days. This is the first report on M. fructicola causing brown rot on cherry fruits in Korea.
Sclerotium cepivrum은 마늘과 같은 파속작물에 발생하는 흑색썩음균핵병의 병원균이다. 기생진균 Paraconiothyrium minitans S134 균주는 마늘 흑색썩음균핵병의 생물적 방제를 위하여 선발되었다. 포장실험은 태안에서 2011년 10월부터 2012년 6월까지 실시하였다. P. minitans S134 균주의 포자현탁액 (5 × 106ml)을 마늘 종구를 파종직후와 다음해 2월 하순에 주당 100 ml씩 각각 관주처리하여 6월 5일에 흑색썩음균핵병 발생 억제효과를 조사하였다. P, minitans S134 균주를 2회 관주처리구가 6.8%, 플루퀀 코나졸수화제 분의처리구가 0.4%, 무처리구가 19.5%의 흑색썩음균핵병이 발생하였다. 그러므로 P. minitans S134 균주는 마늘 흑색썩음균핵병에 대한 유망한 미생물농약으로서 가능성을 나타내었다. Sclerotium cepivorum is a causal agent of white rot disease on different plants including Allium species such as garlic. A mycoparasite, Paraconiothyrium minitans S134 was selected for biological control of sclerotinia rot of garlic caused by S. cepivorum. The experiment was carried out in a garlic field in Taean from October in 2011 to June in 2012. Spore suspension of the mycoparasite was treated twice onto soil surface around garlic plants in sowing in 2011 and late Feb. in 2012, and disease rating was made June in 2012, Incidence of white rot in the twice-application plot of the mycoparasite (5×106spores/mL) and in the fluquinconazole (WP)-treated plot was 6.8% and 0.4%, respectively, whereas that of control was 19.5%. As the results, P. minitans S134 could be a prospective biofungicide for biological control of white rot of garlic.
Job`s tears (Coix lacryma-jobi) is native to East Asia, and grains of the plant are used as health food and medicinal material. Head blight symptoms of the plant were frequently observed during disease surveys in Korea from 2006 to 2008. The symptoms were characterized as discoloration of husks, and subsequently inside of mature grains were shriveled or emptied. One hundred fifty nine isolates of Fusarium species were obtained from the disease symptoms of the plant collected from several locations in the country. Out of the isolates, the most frequently isolated Fusarium species were F. graminearum (34%), F. proliferatum (14.5%), F. verticillioides (10.1%), F. equiseti (6.9%), and F. fujikuroi (6.3%). Other Fusarium species isolated were F. subglutinans, F. semitectum, F. poae, and F. sporodochioides. Elongation factor 1 alpha gene sequences of the isolates were used for phylogenetic analysis. Analyses of the sequences revealed that the isolates were confirmed to be identical with each reference species of NCBI GenBank. Pathogenicity tests showed that F. graminearum, F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides were strongly virulent to grains of Job`s tears. The present study is the first report of head blight of Job`s tears caused by Fusarium species in Korea.