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Creep rupture data were obtained from a series of creep tests with different applied stresses at 850℃, 900℃ and 950℃ of Alloy 617, which is considered as a prime candidate material for the VHTR application. On the basis of the creep experimental data, the analysis of creep rupture behavior was performed using various creep relations and laws such as Norton's power law, Monkman-Grant Relationships (MGR), Modified Monkman-Grant Relationships (MMGR), creep damage tolerance factor λ, and Zener-Hollomon Parameter (Z), and then the creep constants used in these equations were determined. The MMGR appeared to be more narrowed in data scattering than the MGR, and it followed well a straight line of m ? 1.0 as m=0.97. In the plot of the Z parameter vs. stress, it obeyed a straight line of the slope of n'=5.87 regardless of the three different temperatures. It would be thus inferred that the same creep mechanism was operative within the present stress and temperature ranges, and creep damage tolerance factor of Alloy 617 was found to be 2.40.
This paper is to compare creep crack growth rates (CCGR) on the base metal (BM) and welded metal (WM) of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel for Gen-IV reactors. Welded specimens were prepared by Shielded Metal Arc Weld (SMAW) method. To obtain material properties for the BM and welded metal, a series of creep and tensile tests was conducted at 600℃, and CCG tests was also performed using 1/2" compact tension specimens under different applied loads at 600℃. Their CCGR behaviors were analyzed by using the empirical equation of the da/dt vs. C<SUP>*</SUP> parameter and compared, respectively. It appeared that, for a given value of C<SUP>*</SUP>, the rate of creep propagation was about 2.0 times faster than in the WM than the BM. This reason is that a creep rate in the WM was largely attributed when compared with that in the BM. From this result, it can be utilized for assessing the rate of creep propagation on the BM and WM of the G91 steel.
The solder is any of various fusible alloys, usually tin and lead, used to join metallic parts that provide the contact between the chip package and the printed circuit board. Solder plays an important role of electrical signals to communicate between the two components. In this study, two kinds of Ag-free solder as sample is made to conduct the thermal shock test and the high humidity temperature test. Low resistance is measured to estimate crack size of solder, using daisy chain. The low speed shear test is also performed to analyze strength of solder. The appropriate degradation model is estimated using the result data. Depending on the composition of solder, lifetime estimation is conducted by adopted degradation model. The lifetime estimated two kinds of Ag-free solder is compared with expected lifetime of Sn-Ag-Cu solder. The result is that both Ag-free composition are more reliable than Sn-Ag-Cu solder.
1980년대의 대중음악사에서는 조용필이 반드시 빠지지 않고 등장한다. 1980년대의 대중들은 남녀노소, 나이를 불문하고 조용필의 음악을 즐겨 들었다. 1970년대부터 이어져 오던 군사정권의 억압에 의해 대중들의 심리상태는 불안정한 상태였으나 그 안에서 피어나는 민주화의 불씨는 꺼지지 않았다. 그런 시기에 조용필이 추구하던 음악은 대중들이 추구하는 음악이었다. 본인의 색이 드러나면서도 대중들의 성향을 파악하여 작품을 만들었다. 그의 음악성, 스타성, 기획력은 그의 1집이 대한민국 최초로 100만 장을 돌파한 것으로 증명하였다. 대중가요는 그 시대 얼마나 많은 사람이 향유하였는지도 중요하지만, 대중들의 소비량을 무시할 수 없는데 조용필의 음악은 지금까지도 꾸준히 많은 대중에게 소비되어 왔기 때문에 주목할 만하다. 1980년대에 연간 1장씩의 앨범을 발매하던 조용필은 직접 작사, 작곡한 작품들도 있지만 길지 않은 시간 동안 많은 곡을 발표한 만큼 함께 작업한 작곡가, 작사가 또한 여러 사람이 존재하였다. 당대 대중들에게 많은 인기를 얻었던 조용필의 곡을 작업한 작사가는 조용필과 작업하는 그 자체로 가치를 증명할 수 있었다. 대중가요의 가사에는 시대상, 대중들의 정서 등이 담겨있다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 조용필의 가사에 어떤 부분이 대중들의 마음을 흔들었는지 조용필 음악의 가사를 특징적으로 살펴보려 한다. Cho, Yong-pil is found without exception in the history of popular music in the 1980s. The people in the 1980s enjoyed his music regardless of age or gender. People's psychology was unstable by the oppression of military junta since the 1970s, but the embers of democratization flaring up in it were unextinguished. At such times, Cho, Yong-pil's music was the one that people sought. He tried to grasp the inclination of people while disclosing his own characteristic. His musicality, star quality, and planning ability were proven when his first album was sold more than 1 million for the first time in Korea. In pop music, by how many people it was enjoyed at the time is important, but people's consumption is unnegligible. With that being said, Cho, Yong-pil's music is worth of notice because his music has steadily been consumed by people. At that time, even if there were songs that Cho, Yong-pil composed and wrote lyrics by himself, he had co-worked with other composers and lyricists because he had to announce many songs for not very long time. The lyricists who worked for Cho, Yong-pil's songs, which gained massive popularity among people could prove their value by working with him. The phases of the times, public sentiment, etc are contained in the lyrics of pop music. This study aims to examine the lyrics of Cho, Yong-pil's music to see which part of his lyrics moved people.