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The hybrid composite carbody structures were considered as the carbody system of Korean Tilting Train express(TTX) to achieve the lightweight design. The TTX carbodies are composed of the carbody shell made of the sandwich composite structure and the underframe made of the metal structure. The sandwich structures were used to minimize the weight of carbody, and the metal underframe was used to modify the design easily and to keep the strength of underframe by the installation of the electrical equipments. The sandwich carbody structures will be cured in an autoclave. In this paper, the manufacturing processes of the TTX carbody structures were introduced briefly.
We have evaluated the structural integrity of a sandwich composite train roof which can find a lightweight, cost saving solution to large structural components for rail vehicles in design stages. The sandwich composite train roof was 11.45 meter long and 1.76 meter wide. The reinforced frame was inserted in sandwich panels to improve the structural performance of train roof structure and had the shape of hollow rectangular box. The finite-element analysis was used to calculate the stresses, deflections and natural frequencies of the sandwich composite train roof against the weight of air-condition system. The 3D sandwich FE model was introduced to simulate the hollow aluminum frames which jointed to both sides of the sandwich train roof. The results shown that the structural performance of a sandwich composite train roof under load conditions specified was proven and the use of aluminum reinforced frame was beneficial with regard to weight savings in comparison to steel reinforced frame.
The use of composite materials for the carbody structures of tilting train has many advantages because of manufacturing variety, specific high-strength & stiffness characteristics, and long-life durability, but the strongest advantage is the possibility of lightweight product. In the leading countries, the composite materials are used for the material for drivers" cabs, interior/exterior equipments for railway train, and it is now developing the composite materials applied for the train carbody structure. In this paper, we conducted the evaluation of structural stability for the all aluminum carbody, all composite carbody and hybrid carbody structures of the Korean Tilting Train eXpress(TTX) with the service speed of 180㎞/h.
This paper describes the results of structural test and finite element analysis for rubber wheel-type Automatic Guideway Transit(AGT) made of aluminum honeycomb sandwich composites with WR580/NF4000 glass-fabric epoxy laminate facesheets. The static tests of vehicle structure were conducted according to JIS E7105. These static tests have been done under vertical load, compressive load and 3-point support load. The structural integrity of AGT vehicle structure was evaluated by displacement, stress obtained from LVDT and strain gauges, and natural frequency. And finite element analysis using Ansys v11.0 was done to compare with the results of static test. The result showed that the results of structural integrity for static test were in an good agreement with these of finite element analysis.
This paper describes the results of experiments on the bending behavior of welded square tube structures for drive shaft sub frame of BIMODAL Tram. The used specimens to test were two different type made of ATOS60 and ST52-3. The square tube made of ST52-3 is the non-welded structure, while the square tube made of ATOS60 is the welded structure. The welded square tube made of ATOS60 will be applied for drive shaft sub frame of BIMODAL Tram. This welded square tube could reduce the manufacturing cost in comparison of non-welded square tube. The results showed that the bending performance of welded square tube made of ATOS60 was proven, and the bending behavior was in an good agreement with that of nonlinear finite element analysis.
In this study, the effects of combined environmental factors on mechanical and thermal analysis properties of graphite/epoxy composites were evaluated through a 2.5KW accelerated environmental aging tester. Environmental factors such as temperature, moisture, and ultraviolet were considered. A xenon-arc lamp was utilized for ultraviolet light, and exposure times of up to 3000 hours were applied. Several types of specimens - tensile, bending, and shear specimens those are warp direction and fill direction - were used to investigate the effects of environmental factors on mechanical properties of the composites. The glass fabric #650/AP300 was used for the fabrication of specimens. Mechanical degradations for tensile, bending and shear properties were evaluated through a UTM. Also, storage shear modulus, loss shear modulus, and tan δ were measured as a function of exposure times through a dynamic mechanical analyzer. Finally exposed surfaces of the composites were examined using a scanning electron microscope.
In this study, mode Ⅰ interlaminar fracture phenomena of carbon fabric/epoxy composite for tilting train were investigated. Specimens were 25㎜×180㎜×4.7㎜ with an initial artificial delamination of 65㎜ at one end. This delamination with the thickness of 12.5㎛ and 25㎛ (teflon film) was used. Mode Ⅰ interlaminar fracture toughness was measured using the double cantilever beam and the fractured surfaces were examined through a scanning electron microscope. The experimental results obtained in this study would be applicable in the design and structural analysis of the composite structures.
The weight reduction of carbody structures is of great concern in developing high speed tilting train for the normal operation of tilting system. The use of composite materials for the carbody structures has many advantages due to their excellent material properties such as high specific strength and stiffness. In this paper, finite element analysis was conducted to analysis and design the composite structure of Tilting Train express(TTX). According to JIS E 7105, various load tests were performed using finite element analysis and the structural safety of the composite carbody structure was inspected to determine the thickness of the composite sandwich structure. In addition, structural analysis was conducted to suggest a design of the joint part of composite carbody and metal underframe.
Adhesive joining technique is considered as one of hot issues in developing advanced composite structures. The designer should be familiar with important guidelines of fundamental principles and ideas underlying the design and application of adhesive joints for a correct joint design. This study deals with the following characteristics of adhesive joining techniques: (1) design parameters the affect the performance of joining, (2) fundamental principles and design methods of joining, (3) adhesive selection, (4) surface pre-treatment of the adherand, and (6) test methods. The results would be used to predict the performance of adhesive joints subjected to a thermal aging.
In this paper, the low velocity response of four different sandwich panels with metal and laminate composite facesheets has been investigated by conducting drop- weight impact tests using an instrumented falling-weight impact tower. Square samples of 100m m sides were subjected low-velocity impact loading using an instrumented testing machine at six energy levels. Impact para meters like maximum force, time to maximum force, deflection at maximum force and absorbed energy were evaluated and compared for four different types of sandwich panels. The impact test results show that sandwich panel with composite laminate facesheet could not observe damage mode of a permanent visible indentation after impact and has a good impact damage resistance in comparison with sandwich panel with metal aluminum facesheet.