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The purpose of this study was to compare the perception of nutritional education among school administrators, parents, and school nutrition teachers at an elementary school. Questionnaires were distributed to 450 subjects (150 school nutrition teachers, 150 school administrators, and 150 parents) from June 15 to June 30, 2009, and 309 (84 school nutrition teachers, 104 administrators, and 121 parents) were analyzed. The results of this study were as follows. First, school nutrition teachers`` perceived level (4.54) of importance of nutritional education was significantly (P<0.001) higher compared to school administrators (4.10) and parents (3.97). Second, demand for revitalization of nutritional education as perceived by parents (3.23) was significantly (P<0.001) higher compared to school nutrition teachers (2.61) and school administrators (2.51). Third, parents`` satisfaction level of elementary school nutritional education was 3.23, followed by those of school administrators (2.83) and school nutrition teachers (2.50). There were significant differences in terms of satisfaction of elementary school nutritional education between school administrators, parents, and school nutrition teachers (P<0.001). Fourth, school nutrition teachers` demand for revitalization of nutritional education was significantly (P<0.001) higher at 4.24 compared to both parents (3.76) and school administrators (3.46). Fifth, with regards to bolstering nutritional education in elementary schools, it was deemed necessary for each school to have a school nutrition teacher. In conclusion, perception of nutritional education varied among school administrators, parents, and school nutrition teachers. In conclusion, a communication network between school administrators, parents, and school nutrition teachers should be established for revitalization of nutritional education at elementary schools.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the subjective experience of job stress among nurses working in long-term care hospitals. Methods: A phenomenological approach was used for the study. Data were collected from May to June, 2016 using open-ended questions during in-depth interviews. Participants were nurses working in long-term care hospitals and had reported experiences of stress. Six nurses participated in this study. Results: Six themes emerged from the analysis using Colaizzi's method: (a) Heavy workload and responsibility due to nurse shortage, (b) Getting exhausted by caring for cognitively impaired patients, (c) Feeling pressure due to conflict with patients' family, (d) compassion for patients who are getting worse, (e) Low value in being a long-term hospital nurse, and (f) Efforts to overcome stress. Conclusion: Sufficient labor supply, environmental improvements, program for improving interpersonal skills, education and counseling on end-of-life care, and recognition improvement about long term hospital are suggested to reduce the job stress of long-term hospital nurses.
Purpose: This study was aimed to identify the level of emotional labor, job stress and professional quality of life and to identify the factors affecting on professional quality of life among nurses in long-term care hospitals. Methods: 136 nurses working at eight different long-term care hospitals were recruited from May 1 to June 30, 2016. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and stepwise multiple regression using SPSS/WIN 22.0. Results: Professional quality of life is consisted of three subcategories as compassion satisfaction, secondary traumatic stress and burn-out. As for the factors affecting on compassion satisfaction, age, satisfaction on working ward and shift pattern of duties were significant factors. The three variables' explanation power on compassion satisfaction was 25.0%. As for factors affecting on secondary traumatic stress, emotional labor was a significant factor. The emotional labor's explanation power on secondary traumatic stress was 13.0%. Factors affecting on burn-out, emotional labor, age, and health condition were significant factors. The three variables' explanation power on burnout is 31.0%. Conclusion: On the basis of results, program development are required to relieve emotional labor and job stress for nurses at long-term care hospitals and to improve their professional quality of life.
신진혁(Jin Hyuk Shin), 차구용(Gu Yong Cha), 김희진(Hui Jin Kim), 황재호(Jae Ho Hwang), 한경호(Kyeong Ho Han), 서효진(Hyo Jin Seo), 신태선(Tai Sun Shin), 오석중(Suk Jung Oh), 김종덕(Jong Deog Kim) 한국생물공학회 2009 KSBB Journal Vol.24 No.6
본 연구에서는 신생혈관형성 제어에 바탕을 둔 비만세포 제어 정도를 확인하기 위하여 4가지 지역 천연산물인 전호 (Anthrisci radix), 파고지 (Psoraleae semen), 희첨 (Siegesbeckiae herba) 및 산수유 (Corni fructus)를 이용한 지방 축적물 변화 및 기전을 확인하기 위해 3T3-L1 adipocyte를 이용한 Oil Red O 염색 및 western blot을 실시하였다. 그 결과 전호, 파고지, 희첨, 산수유의 세포 독성 이내의 농도 증가에 따라 지방 축적물이 감소됨을 보였다. 또한 western blot을 위해 lipogenesis와 관련된 SREBP-1 및 adipogenesis와 관련된 PPARγ와 C/EBPα의 신호전달 정도를 확인한 결과 4가지 지역 천연산물의 농도 증가에 따라 단백질의 발현양이 감소 됨을 확인하였다. 이는 4가지 지역 천연산물 추출물이 지방 분화와 관련된 신호분자를 차단함으로써 지방형성이 억제 되었음을 보였다. 따라서 4가지 지역 천연산물인 전호, 파고지, 희첨 및 산수유는 신생혈관형성 억제에 따른 항비만제 제로서의 이용 가능함을 시사하였다. 4 kinds of Regional Special Natural Products (RSNPs), such as Anthrisci radix, Psoraleae semen, Siegesbeckiae herba and Corni fructus were examined to verify for anti-obesity effect. PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ) from 3T3-L1 cell concerning adipocyte differentiation was suppressed by different concentraton of 4 RSNPs with western blot, when treated RSNPs" extract and MDI (IBMX, Dexamethasone, Insulin) at the same time. Also, SREBP-1 (Sterol regulatory element binding protein) controlling lipogenesis and PPARγ expression levels were reduced by these 4 RSNPs" extract, when these chemicals after differentiation of 3T3-L1 cell. And lipid droplets were reduced by 7.5%, 14.4%, 18.3% and 30% at different concentration of Anthrisci radix from Oil Red O staining. Also, it was reduced by 2%, 4.9%, 9.3% and 38% at different concentration of Psoraleae semen. For Siegesbeckiae herba, it was inhibited by 1.4%, 6.4%, 16.4% and 30.1%, respectively. And Corni fructus was also showed by 0.9%, 6.3%, 13.7% and 33% at same concentration of Siegesbeckiae herba. These 4 kinds of RSNPs were expected for a useful material for anti-obesity materials.
신진혁(Jin Hyuk Shin), 차구용(Gu Yong Cha), 김희진(Hui Jin Kim), 황재호(Jae Ho Hwang), 한경호(Kyeong Ho Han), 서효진(Hyo Jin Seo), 김민용(Min Yong Kim), 오석중(Suk Jung Oh), 김종덕(Jong Deog Kim) 한국생물공학회 2009 KSBB Journal Vol.24 No.6
많은 연구를 통해 세포간 부착은 신생혈관형성에 큰 영향을 미치며, 이러한 세포부착억제를 통해 직접적으로 신생혈관형성을 제어할 수 있다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 이러한 신생혈관형성 억제력을 가지는 지역 천연산물을 이용하여 HUVECs 및 U937 cells를 이용한 세포부착 억제정도를 확인하였다. 4가지 천연산물의 세포부착 억제력을 확인하기 위해 세포부착 억제실험을 3가지 방법으로 달리 하여 세포부착 억제정도를 확인한 결과 먼저, IL-1β 및 천연산물이 자극된 HUVECs 에 대한 U937 세포부착 억제실험에서는 전호, 파고지, 희첨 및 산수유의 농도 증가에 따라 전호의 경우 최고 0.2 mg/L에서 276%의 저해율을, 파고지의 경우 5 mg/L에서 220%, 희첨의 경우 10 mg/L에서 158%, 산수유의 경우 20 mg/L에서 132%의 저해효과가 있음을 보였다. 두 번째로 실시한 HUVECs에 대한 PMA 및 천연산물이 자극된 U937 세포부착 억제실험에서는 전호 0.2 mg/L에서 139%, 파고지 5 mg/L에서 442%, 희첨 10 mg/L에서 720%, 산수유 20 mg/L에서 664%의 저해율을 보임을 확인하였다. 마지막으로 실시한 IL-1β 및 천연산물 추출물이 자극된 HUVECs에 대한 천연산물 추출물이 자극된 U937 cells 의 세포부착 억제실험의 경우, 전호 0.2 mg/L에서 286%, 파고지 5 mg/L에서 146%, 희첨 10 mg/L에서 436%, 산수유 20 mg/L에서 297%의 저해율을 보였다. 이상의 3가지 방법으로 실시한 세포부착 억제실험에서 모두 각각의 천연산물 추출물의 농도증가에 따라 현저하게 그 부착력이 억제됨을 확인하였다. 따라서, 본 연구에서 사용된 전호, 파고지, 희첨 및 산수유는 세포부착을 억제함으로서, 신생혈관형성과 관련된 암 및 비만의 근본적인 치료제제로써 사용 가능함을 시사한다. For investigation of anti-angiogenesis mechanism of Anthrisci radix, Psoraleae semen, Siegesbeckiae herba and Corni fructus, anti-cell adhesion experiment was performed. The adhesion of U937 cells to IL-1β-stimulated HUVECs was completely suppressed by 276% at 0.2 mg/L of Anthrisci radix, 220% at 5 mg/L of Psoraleae semen, 158% at 10 mg/L of Siegesbeckiae herba and 132% at 20 mg/L of Corni fructus, respectively. And the adhesion of PMA-chemical stimulated U937 cells to HUVECs, it was inhibited 139% at 0.2 mg/L of Anthrisci radix, 442% at 5 mg/L of Psoraleae semen, 720% at 10 mg/L of Siegesbeckiae herba and 664% at 20 mg/L of Corni fructus. Also, the adhesion of chemical stimulated U937 cells to IL-1β/chemical stimullated HUVECs, it was inhibited by 286% at 0.2 mg/L of Anthrisci radix, 146% at 5 mg/L of Psoraleae semen, 436% at 10 mg/L of Siegesbeckiae herba and 297% at 20 mg/L of Corni fructus, respectively. It would be a useful substance for anti-cell adhesion based on anti-angiogenesis for anti-obesity and anti-cancer.