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Self-assembled monolayer (SAM) molecule derivatives from benzoic acid, such as 4-methoxybenzoic acid (MBA), 4-tertbutylbenzoic acid (BBA), and 4-fluorobenzoic acid (FBA), have different dipole orientation and magnitude. In this study, these benzoic acid derivatives were used as an electron injection/transporting layer in inverted type organic solar cells (OSCs) with a structure of ITO/SAM treated ZnO/active layer (P3HT:PC<sub>61</sub>BM)/MoO<sub>3</sub>/Ag, and then the performances of each are compared. The results showed that the power conversion efficiency (PCE) and the open circuit voltage (Voc) values of the devices based on ZnO/MBA and ZnO/BBA treated ZnO showed better performances than other devices. This can be caused by the direction of dipole moment of benzoic acid derivatives. Accordingly, this work provides an alternative strategy to improve the interface property between inorganic and organic materials in organic electronic devices by SAM treatment on the ZnO surface
As the fossil fuels that are currently being used are depleted, renewable energy industry recently has become active. And the one of renewable energy is solar cells. Especially, Organic solar cell (OSC) is a one of effective ways to convert solar source to electrical energy. Recently, many researchers have tried to achieve higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) of OSC by developing new semiconducting materials. In this study, we design the new small molecules with organic hydroxyl groups and intercalate between ZnO layer and active layer. Herein, hydroxyl groups induce the favorable interface dipole for these electron transfer layer (ETL) to enhance PCE. And we investigate the effect of interface dipole from hydroxyl groups on photovoltaic parameters.
Two easily accessible fluorene-substituted conjugated oligo-electrolytes (COEs), FTF- and FBF-NBr, have been developed as the electron transfer layers (ETLs) in inverted type organic solar cells (iOSCs). The iOSCs with ETLs show to improve the power conversion efficiency (PCE) and time-dependent stability of the cell that utilizes a high work function cathode. FBF- and FTF-NBr significantly improve the device parameters compared to the reference solar cells without ETLs, as reduce the work function of indium thin oxide (ITO). In this work, COEs have low HOMO levels -5.54 eV and -5.77 eV for FTF-NBr and FBF-NBr in order, which are favorable to hole-blocking ability. In order to investigate the effect of ETL on the photovoltaic properties, the iOSCs with FBF- and FTF-NBr as the interlayer at the cathode side were fabricated. As a result, the PCE of 7.89% with FBF-NBr and 8.05% with FTF-NBr as the ETL has been achieved.
Polymer solar cells have several attractive features. The active materials used for fabrication devices in PSCs are soluble in most of common organic solvents, have potentials to be flexible and manufactured in a continuous printing process. In PSCs, conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) are generally used for introducing interfacial dipole, and many studies focus on the modulation of interfacial dipoles by altering the side chain through the delicate design to improve their functions. The interfacial dipole between photoactive layer and electrode play an important role in modification of work function and hole blocking ability. Herein, two CPEs, PHPT and PcoPT, which have different side chains and their salts were polymerized to compare the effect of conformation, and then fabricated for polymer solar cells (PSCs).
Highly efficient and stable polymer solar cells (PSCs) have been fabricated by introducing interface dipoles at the cathode interface as a cathode buffer, which can greatly improve device performance by influencing the strength of interfacial dipoles in PSCs. By choosing suitable interfacial materials, the energetic barrier height at the interface could be reduced to form an ohmic contact with less series resistance, inducing high charge collection efficiency of the corresponding electrodes for holes or electrons. In this paper, we investigated the different types counteranions (CAs) on conjugated polymer electrolytes (CPEs) or polyelectrolytes based on a cationic polyviologen (PV) derivative as cathode buffer layer. The strength of interfacial dipoles in PSCs is affected by changing the CAs in PV derivatives.
Electron acceptor-donor-acceptor type oligomers based on benzothiadiazole (BT) unit and a (4,8-bis((2-ethylhexyl)oxy)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6- diyl) bis(trimethylstannane) (BDT) unit have been designed and prepared as electron- donating materials, which are 2,6-[5-(7-methyl-benzo[1,2,5]thiadiazol-4-yl)- thiophen-2-yl]-4,8-bis((2-ethylhexyl)oxy)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene) (BDT-TBT) and 2,6-[5'-(3'-hexyl-[2,2']bithiophenyl-5-yl)-7-methyl-benzo[1,2,5]thiadiazole]-4,8- bis((2-ethylhexyl)oxy)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene) (BDT-THTBT), for Organic Solar Cells (OSCs) with PC71BM as electron-accepting materials. The HOMO energy level is elevated by the number of thiophene ring as a p-bridge, which lowers the band gap. Inverted-type organic solar cells (OSCs) with a configuration of ITO/ZnO/BDT-TBT (or BDT-THTBT):PC71BM/MoO3/Al are fabricated. OSC based on BDT-THTBT exhibits the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.04% with the best Jsc of 4.20 mA/cm2.
Interfacial materials are essential to the performance and stability of polymer solar cells (PSCs). Here, we introduced the role of pyridine derivative as an efficient cathode buffer layer between the photoactive layer and Zn cathode. The work function of the cathode and energy barrier at the interfaces between the cathode and active layer was modified by changing interfacial dipole as different positions of hydroxide in pyridine. When using pyridine derivative instead of the traditionally used ITO/ZnO cathode in PSCs, the short-circuit current density (Jsc) is improved and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PSCs based device with pyridine buffer layer is increased. A better performance with PCE of different position is achieved when 2-hydroxy pyridine is chosen as buffer layers. The results indicate that pyridine derivative is a promising electron collection material as a substitute of the traditional low-work-function cathode.
A planar acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) structured organic molecule, (BDT-HTOX), was designed and synthesized for the application as donor material in inverted type organic solar cells (OSCs). Benzodithiophene (BDT) was used as central donor (D) unit and phenylisoxazol (OX) as acceptor (A) unit, while hexylthiophene (HT) ring as a bridge to extend the effective conjugation length and increase the solubility of the material. For devices, PC71BM is employing as the electron acceptor unit. Herein, the optoelectronic properties of BDTHTOX as well as the devices performances had been investigated. UV-Vis absorption and electrochemical measurements revealed the HUMO/LUMO level at -3.72 eV/ -5.44 eV with an optical band gap of 1.72 eV for BDT-HTOX. While the devices based on BDT-HTOX : PC<sub>71</sub>BM = 1:1 in chlorobenzene as a solvent for solution processed organic solar cells showed the best performance.
Small molecular organic electrolyte; N,N,N,N,N,N-hexakis(2-hydroxyethyl)butane-1,4-diaminium bromide (C4), doped ZnO is prepared by a typical sol–gel process and used as the for an electron transport layer in inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs). The electron mobility of the doped ZnO is comparable to that of pristine ZnO because the crystallinity of the ZnO layer is not significantly affected by the doping process. The Kelvin probe microscopy measurements employ that the work function of doped ZnO are −4.0 eV, which is higher than that of pristine ZnO (−4.5 eV). This is due to that the formation of interface dipole at the interface between the ZnO layer and the active layer by unreacted hydroxyl groups and quaternary ammonium bromide. As a result, inverted PSC based on C4 doped ZnO exhibit the power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 8.87%, which is a significant improvement over the device based on pristine ZnO (PCE = 7.4%). Note that the main contribution to the enhancement of the PCE is from the improvement of the Jsc.