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      • 『베니스의 상인』과 『몰타의 유대인』에 나타난 반유대주의의 전복적 양상

        강석주 ( Seok Ju Kang ) 21세기영어영문학회 2005 영어영문학21 Vol.18 No.2

        The Subversive Aspects of Anti-semitism in The Jew of Malta and The Merchant of Venice Kang, Seok-Ju(Mokpo National University) Christopher Marlowe's The Jew of Malta and William Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice surely show a similarity in that they represent a wicked Jew derived from the contemporary Anti-semitism for the purpose of inciting the audience's interest. It seems certain that the popularity of the two works resulted from the excitement of crying out against the Jew and of applauding at his downfall, but the works include some ironical elements that evoke subversive meaning against the traditional anti-semitism: The Jew of Malta reveals not so much the Jew's wickedness as Christians' hypocritical aspects; The Merchant of Venice persuades the audience that the cruel Jew is also a human being. The dual aspects of the two works may create some dramatic effects that criticize the political and religious conflict between the Catholic and the Protestant in the Elizabethan English society. However, it is remarkable that Marlowe‘s voice sounds different from Shakespeare's in revealing the prejudice and hypocritical contradiction in Christian society, even though they share the same voice in condemning the Jew's cruel and wicked aspects that reflect anti-semitism. The Christians in Marlowe's work reveal their contradictory and hypocritical desire for money and women, and arecompletely mocked, despised, and ruined by Barabas. And this seems to be the result of their unjust desire to take Baraba's property which was gained by his excellent commercial technique. On the contrary, the Christians in Shakespeare's work never get ashamed by Shylock. Although Antonio and Bassanio borrow money from Shylock, Antonio risks his own life and never lose his dignity even when he is about to lose his life. Rather the Christians have the chance to enjoy mocking Shylock's cruelty in virtue of Portia's wisdom. While Marlowe focuses on criticizing the Christians' hypocritical double standard through the Jew's perspective, Shakespeare is focusing on the exclusion of the dangerous Jew and its invalidity at the same time. While Marlowe shows the boldness to represent his critical view against the contemporary political and social reality in his work, Shakespeare is quite careful in his representation. Although Marlowe drives Barabas the wicked Jew into destruction, he plainly reveals his desire to transgress the ruling order of his society displaying his political view. But Shakespeare, unlike Marlowe, doesn't express any single political voice. Rather by suggesting the contradicting plural voices at the same time without transgressing the establish ruling order, he attributes the judgement to the audience.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Detection of L-Xylosone and its Physiological Effects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

        Seok,,Yeong-Jae,Yang,,Kap-Seok,Kang,,Ju-Gyeong,Kim,,Seong-Tae,Huh,,Won-Ki,Kang,,Sa-Ouk The Microbiological Society of Korea 1996 The journal of microbiology Vol.34 No.2

        L-Xylosone was detected as its quinoxaline derivative in the degradation solution of dehydro-L-ascorbic acid. The production rate of L-xylosone was much faster in aerated phosphate-cirate buffer (pH 5. 6) than in pure water. L-Xylosone and dehydro-L-ascorbic acid were identified in the crude extracts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The concentration of L-xylosone in the crude cell extracts was calculated to be about 0.2 nmol $(mg protein)^{-1}$. When L-xylosone was added to asynchronous culture of S. cerevisiae, it inhibited primarily the synthesis of protein and RNA. Examination of the effect of L- xylosone on synchronous culture of the yeast indicated that L-xylosone inhibited the initiation of DNA replication and that the cells were arrested at $G_1$, stage of cell division cycle. These results suggested a possibility that L-xylosone can act as an inhibitor of cell growth.

      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        Fabrication of micropatterned ferroelectric gamma poly(vinylidene fluoride) film for non-volatile polymer memory

        Kang,,Seok,Ju,Bae,,Insung,Choi,,Ji-Hyuk,Park,,Youn,Jung,Jo,,Pil,Sung,Kim,,Yuna,Kim,,Kap,Jin,Myoung,,Jae-Min,Kim,,Eunkyoung,Park,,Cheolmin Royal Society of Chemistry 2011 Journal of materials chemistry Vol.21 No.11

        <P>We describe a facile and robust method for fabricating ferroelectric γ-type poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) thin films useful for non-volatile polymer memory. Our method is based on heating and cooling rate-independent melt-recrystallization of a thin PVDF film confined under a surface-energy-controlled top layer that strictly forbids paraelectric α crystals. Thin and uniform PVDF films with ferroelectric γ crystals consisting of characteristic twisted lamellae are formed with versatile top layers including metals, oxides, and even polymers. Micropatterns of ferroelectric γ PVDF domains isolated by paraelectric α domains are readily developed when pre-patterned top layers are employed. Our ferroelectric films are conveniently incorporated into arrays of either capacitor or transistor-type non-volatile memory units. Arrays of ferroelectric transistors with vacuum deposited pentacene channels are fabricated with micropatterned γ PVDF films. Furthermore, arrays of bottom-gate ferroelectric transistor memories are demonstrated, in which our ferroelectric PVDF film is directly micropatterned during crystallization under the patterned poly(3-hexyl thiophene) active channels.</P> <P>Graphic Abstract</P><P>Non-volatile ferroelectric memory transistors with pentacene channels are demonstrated with ferroelectric gamma PVDF micropatterns isolated by paraelectric α domains <I>via</I> melt-recrystallization of a thin PVDF film confined under a surface-energy-controlled top layer. <IMG SRC='http://pubs.rsc.org/services/images/RSCpubs.ePlatform.Service.FreeContent.ImageService.svc/ImageService/image/GA?id=c0jm02732d'> </P>

      • Nonvolatile Polymer Memory with Nanoconfinement of Ferroelectric Crystals

        Kang,,Seok,Ju,Bae,,Insung,Shin,,Yu,Jin,Park,,Youn,Jung,Huh,,June,Park,,Sang-Min,Kim,,Ho-Cheol,Park,,Cheolmin American Chemical Society 2011 Nano letters Vol.11 No.1

        <P>We demonstrate significantly improved performance of a nonvolatile polymeric ferroelectric field effect transistor (FeFET) memory using nanoscopic confinement of poly(vinylidene fluoride-<I>co</I>-trifluoroethylene) (PVDF-TrFE) within self-assembled organosilicate (OS) lamellae. Periodic OS lamellae with 30 nm in width and 50 nm in periodicity were templated using block copolymer self-assembly. Confined crystallization of PVDF-TrFE not only significantly reduces gate leakage current but also facilitates ferroelectric polarization switching. These benefits are due to the elimination of structural defects and the development of an effective PVDF-TrFE crystal orientation through nanoconfinement. A bottom gate FeFET fabricated using a single-crystalline triisopropylsilylethynyl pentacene channel and PVDF-TrFE/OS hybrid gate insulator shows characteristic source-drain current hysteresis that is fully saturated at a programming voltage of ±8 V with an ON/OFF current ratio and a data retention time of approximately 10<SUP>2</SUP> and 2 h, respectively.</P><P><B>Graphic Abstract</B> <IMG SRC='http://pubs.acs.org/appl/literatum/publisher/achs/journals/content/nalefd/2011/nalefd.2011.11.issue-1/nl103094e/production/images/medium/nl-2010-03094e_0006.gif'></P><P><A href='http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/nl103094e'>ACS Electronic Supporting Info</A></P>

      • Printable Ferroelectric PVDF/PMMA Blend Films with Ultralow Roughness for Low Voltage Non-Volatile Polymer Memory

        Kang,,Seok,Ju,Park,,Youn,Jung,Bae,,Insung,Kim,,Kap,Jin,Kim,,Ho-Cheol,Bauer,,Siegfried,Thomas,,Edwin,L.,Park,,Cheolmin WILEY-VCH Verlag 2009 Advanced functional materials Vol.19 No.17

        <P>Here, a facile route to fabricate thin ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) blend films with very low surface roughness based on spin-coating and subsequent melt-quenching is described. Amorphous PMMA in a blend film effectively retards the rapid crystallization of PVDF upon quenching, giving rise to a thin and flat ferroelectric film with nanometer scale β-type PVDF crystals. The still, flat interfaces of the blend film with metal electrode and/or an organic semi-conducting channel layer enable fabrication of a highly reliable ferroelectric capacitor and transistor memory unit operating at voltages as low as 15 V. For instance, with a TIPS-pentacene single crystal as an active semi-conducting layer, a flexible ferroelectric field effect transistor shows a clockwise I–V hysteresis with a drain current bistability of 10<SUP>3</SUP> and data retention time of more than 15 h at ±15 V gate voltage. Furthermore, the robust interfacial homogeneity of the ferroelectric film is highly beneficial for transfer printing in which arrays of metal/ferroelectric/metal micro-capacitors are developed over a large area with well defined edge sharpness.</P> <B>Graphic Abstract</B> <P>The melt and ice-quenching of a thin PMMA/PVDF blend film spin-coated on a substrate is an effective way to form ferroelectric β-PVDF crystals. These thin blend films allow not only to fabricate a flexible transistor memory but also to develop ferroelectric micro-capacitor arrays based on the transfer printing technique. <img src='wiley_img/1616301X-2009-19-17-ADFM200900589-content.gif' alt='wiley_img/1616301X-2009-19-17-ADFM200900589-content'> </P>

      • KCI등재

        Shakespeare and Renaissance Discourse of Madness

        Kang Seok-Ju(강석주) 한국셰익스피어학회 2001 셰익스피어 비평 Vol.37 No.3

        이성이 지배해 온 서구 역사에서 광기는 “타자성”으로 규정되어 왔다. 그리고 그러한 광기의 타자성은 데카르트의 이성론과 절대 권력, 그리고 과학과 산업의 발전으로 특징지을 수 있는 근대 사회에서부터 현대에 이르기까지 광기를 비정상 과 질병으로 규정하면서 더욱 심화되었다고 볼 수 있다. 하지만 현대 후기 구조주의의 지평 위에서 볼 때, 광기는 라캉이 말하는 “아버지의 법”으로 상징되는 타자 의 권위와 질서에 의해서 구성된 거짓 자아로부터 자유로운 유일한 영역이 될 수 있지 않을까? 광기란 무엇인가? 결국 기존 사회의 법률, 관습, 질서와의 동일시를 향한 욕망으로부터 일탈된 언어와 행위를 지시하는 또 다른 욕망의 기표라고 할 수 있지 않겠는가? 따라서 우리는 광기의 뿌리를 개인을 둘러싼 사회의 객관적 모 순 속에서 발견할 수 있다. 그렇다면 그동안 이성에 의해 억압당하고 감금당하고 격리되어 온 광기는 하나의 정신질환으로서 개인적인 심리사의 차원을 넘어, 그 속에 내재되어있는 위반과 일탈의 욕망을 이성의 역사와 마찬가지로 사회적, 정치 적, 문화적으로 재해석하는 작업이 필요하다. 한 가지 흥미있는 사실은 서구의 역사에서 광기가 이성과 함께 활개치며 거리를 활보하고, 인간 본질의 중요한 일부로써 대접받았던 르네쌍스 시기에는 셰익스피어와 그의 동시대인들이 놀라운 결작들을 쏟아낸 반면에, 광기에 대한 억압과 대감금을 시작했던 고전주의와 계몽주의 시대에는 결코 위대한 예술과 문학 작품 을 찾아보기 힘들다는 점이다. 고전주의 시대부터 현대에 이르기까지 광기의 억압은 이성과 권력의 결탁을 의미하는 상정적인 사건이었으며, 과학과 실증주의에 입각한 물질적 성장과 권력에 의한 지배와 통제의 강화는 오히려 제국주의나 식민주 의와 같은 지배와 착취 분화를 발달시킨 반면, 그 사회와 문화의 정신적 성숙과 발전을 억압하는 결과를 가져온 것이다. 셰익스피어의 비극들이 그토록 위대한 정신세계를 표현할 수 있었던 배경에는 바로 광기가 있다. 햄릿과 오필리어, 리어와 에드거, 멕베드와 멕베드 부인 등으로 이어지는 광기의 재현은 기존 질서의 틀을 벗어나 그 이면의 진실을 밝히고, 인간의 본질과 억압된 욕망, 그리고 사회와 권력에 대한 비판 등올 적나라하게 드러내는 역할을 한다. 본 연구의 목적은 바로 이러한 광기에 관한 르네상스의 담론이 셰익스피어의 작품들 속에서 어떻게 재구성되어 나타나는지 고찰함으로써, 셰익스피어의 광기 재현이 당대의 이성과 권력의 질서 속에서 어떤 의미를 가질 수 있었는지 분석하는 것이다. 이를 위해서 광기가 작품의 의미를 결정하는 중요한 극적 요소로 작용 하는 비극을 중심으로 분석하게 될 것이다. 자신의 작품들에서 광기를 중요한 극 적 요소로 사용하고 있는 셰익스피어는 광기를 어떻게 재현하고 있는가? 그는 당 대의 복합적이고 이중적인 광기 담론 가운데에서 어떤 일정한 견해를 정치적, 사 회적 목적을 위해 무대 위에서 재현하고 있지는 않는가? 셰익스피어는 자신의 비극들에서 엘리자베드 당대의 담론들을 포함하여 다양하고 복합적인 르네쌍스의 담론을 반영하는 광기의 양태들을 표현하고 있다『햄릿』과 『리어왕』 등의 작품에서 우리는 리어와 햄릿의 어리석음을 깨우치는 바보 광대들의 지혜와 유머를 들을수 있는가 하면, 멕베드 부인과 오필리어가 보여주는 여성의 광기와, 햄릿, 라어, 멕베드, 등이 겪는 광기의 경험을 통해 인간의 기질이나 감정의 문제, 죄의식, 악령이나 마녀의 영향력, 인간의 어두운 본성과 비극적 지혜, 그리고 두려움과 공포에 사로잡힌 환상, 등 다양한 모습들을 발견해 낼 수 있다. 극작가이자 예술가로서 현실과 허구의 경계를 넘나드는 셰익스피어는 일차적으로 자신의 예술적 목적과 상업적 목적에 충실하게 광기를 재현하고 있다. “유사성"(analogy)과 “변화"(transition) 가 공존하는 시대에 살면서 다양한 계층의 관객들을 만족시키기 위해 모호하고 복 합적인 목소리를 내었던 그는 당대의 광기에 관한 다양한 담론들을 극적 효과의 극대화를 위한 수단으로 사용하고 있으며, 어떤 정치적, 종교적, 사회적 판단을 쉽게

      • Non-volatile Ferroelectric Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) Memory Based on a Single-Crystalline Tri-isopropylsilylethynyl Pentacene Field-Effect Transistor

        Kang,,Seok,Ju,Bae,,Insung,Park,,Youn,Jung,Park,,Tae,Ho,Sung,,Jinwoo,Yoon,,Sung,Cheol,Kim,,Kyung,Hwan,Choi,,Dong,Hoon,Park,,Cheolmin WILEY-VCH Verlag 2009 Advanced Functional Materials Vol.19 No.10

        <P>A new type of nonvolatile ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) memory based on an organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) with a single crystal of tri-isopropylsilylethynyl pentacene (TIPS-PEN) as the active layer is developed. A bottom-gate OTFT is fabricated with a thin P(VDF-TrFE) film gate insulator on which a one-dimensional ribbon-type TIPS-PEN single crystal, grown via a solvent-exchange method, is positioned between the Au source and drain electrodes. Post-thermal treatment optimizes the interface between the flat, single-crystalline ab plane of TIPS-PEN and the polycrystalline P(VDF-TrFE) surface with characteristic needle-like crystalline lamellae. As a consequence, the memory device exhibits a substantially stable source–drain current modulation with an ON/OFF ratio hysteresis greater than 10<SUP>3</SUP>, which is superior to a ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) OTFT that has a vacuum-evaporated pentacene layer. Data retention longer than 5 × 10<SUP>4</SUP> s is additionally achieved in ambient conditions by incorporating an interlayer between the gate electrode and P(VDF-TrFE) thin film. The device is environmentally stable for more than 40 days without additional passivation. The deposition of a seed solution of TIPS-PEN on the chemically micropatterned surface allows fabrication arrays of TIPS-PEN single crystals that can be potentially useful for integrated arrays of ferroelectric polymeric TFT memory.</P> <B>Graphic Abstract</B> <P>A single crystal of tri-isopropylsilylethynyl pentacene is utilized as an active channel for non-destructive readout of a bottom-gate ferroelectric field-effect transistor with a poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) gate dielectric (see figure). The FET exhibits sufficient ON/OFF current bistability with excellent data retention as well as environmental stability. <img src='wiley_img/1616301X-2009-19-10-ADFM200801097-content.gif' alt='wiley_img/1616301X-2009-19-10-ADFM200801097-content'> </P>

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Whole-body vibration analysis for assessment of railway vehicle ride quality

        Kang,,Ju-Seok,Choi,,Yeon-Sun,Choe,,Kang-Youn 대한기계학회 2011 JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Vol.25 No.3

        In this paper, a whole-body vibration analysis using a three-dimensional human biodynamic model is presented, and the dynamic behavior of the body exposed to vibration by a railway vehicle is investigated with respect to ride quality. Since a subject in a railway vehicle is exposed to multi-axial excitation conditions, the acceleration of the body is calculated by summing the accelerations in three directions. The equations for the acceleration response of the body are formulated as complex transfer functions multiplied by input accelerations from the three axes in the form of a frequency response function. Body behavior when exposed to random acceleration inputs measured at the floor of the railway vehicle is investigated across a frequency domain. Root Mean Square (RMS) values of the acceleration magnitudes in the body regions are calculated from the power spectral density (PSD) values of the acceleration responses. The absolute magnitude of the accelerations of the body is compared with the ride index, which is calculated using the input accelerations and standard methods. It is shown that the absolute magnitudes in the body regions are proportional to the standard ride index and that the ride index accurately reflects vibration damage to the body. A proposed seat design using the vibration magnitudes calculated with the human biodynamic model also is presented.

      • Conjugated Polymer Chain and Crystallite Orientation Induced by Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays

        Kang,,Seok-Ju,Kim,,Youn-Su,Kim,,Won,Bae,Kim,,Dong-Yu,Noh,,Yong-Young American Chemical Society 2013 ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES Vol.5 No.18

        <P>We report a method for controlling the orientations of conjugated polymers in the active layer of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) by annealing the film at the melting temperature in a vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube (VA-CNT) template under various load pressures. Poly(3-hexylthiophene) [P3HT] molecules are effectively aligned in the melting state annealing at 240 °C for 30 min, as a result of intermolecular π–π and CH<SUB>3</SUB>–π interactions between the polymer and the VA-CNTs, which are separated from the conjugated polymer film after cooling to room temperature. In-plane and out-of-plane X-ray diffraction results show that the melt-annealed P3HT film with VA-CNTs has better crystallite ordering than a pristine 80 °C baked film and a melt-annealed film without VA-CNTs, and a larger number of crystallites in the treated P3HT film are oriented in the [100] direction, which is normal to the substrate. When we used the melt-aligned P3HT film with VA-CNTs as the active layer in OTFTs, the P3HT OTFT exhibits a better field-effect mobility value of 0.12 cm<SUP>2</SUP>/(V s) than a simply melt-annealed device without VA-CNTs [0.06 cm<SUP>2</SUP>/(V s)].</P><P><B>Graphic Abstract</B> <IMG SRC='http://pubs.acs.org/appl/literatum/publisher/achs/journals/content/aamick/2013/aamick.2013.5.issue-18/am402264m/production/images/medium/am-2013-02264m_0007.gif'></P><P><A href='http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/am402264m'>ACS Electronic Supporting Info</A></P>

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