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We report the preparation of sulfonated reduced graphene oxide (SRGO) by the sulfonationof graphene oxide followed by radiation-induced chemical reduction. Graphene oxideprepared by the well-known modified Hummer's method was sulfonated with the aryldiazonium salt of sulfanilic acid. Sulfonated graphene oxide (SGO) dispersed in ethanolwas subsequently reduced by γ-ray irradiation at various absorbed doses to produce SRGO. The results of optical, chemical, and thermal analyses revealed that SRGO was successfullyprepared by γ-ray irradiation-induced chemical reduction of the SGO suspension. Moreover,the electrical conductivity of SRGO was increased up to 2.94 S/cm with an increase of theabsorbed dose.
Background : People with the metabolic syndrome are at increased risk for cardiovascular mortality. Metabolic syndrome is caused by interplay between genetic and many environmental factors. Although several environmental factors have diverse effect on the development of metabolic syndrome, few studies have examined their relation in Koreans. This study was performed to estimate the effects of smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, education level and family history on the components of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults and to observe the relative risk of developing metabolic syndrome defined by NCEP-ATP III according to these factors. Methods : This study was performed in 4341 subjects (2059 men, 2282 women, mean age 42.3±10.4). We gathered the smoking, alcohol drinking, exercise, family history and education level by self-administered questionnaire at the health promotion center. Height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure were examined. Fasting serum triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose were measured. Results : Multivariate-adjusted odds ratio of hypertriglyceridemia was 1.4 (95% CI 1.0∼1.8) and low HDL-C (high density lipoprotein cholesterol) was 1.9 (95% CI 1.3∼2.6) in subjects who smoked more than 20 PYS compared to nonsmokers. Also relative risk of developing metabolic syndrome in smokers (more than 20 PYS) was 1.9 (95% CI 1.1∼3.7) compared to nonsmokers. Alcohol consumption had a significant protective effect against low HDL-C in all categories compared to nondrinkers (adjusted OR 0.6∼0.2). In people with lack of exercise, the odds ratio of high waist circumference was 4.1 (95% CI 1.31∼8.6), high triglyceride was 1.3 (95% CI 1.0∼1.8), low HDL-C was 1.5 (95% CI 1.5∼2.0) when compared to subjects with regular exercise. Relative risk for metabolic syndrome was 1.7 (95% CI 0.9∼2.8). The adjusted odds ratio of high blood pressure was 1.3 (95% CI 1.1∼1.6) and high fasting glucose was 1.7 (95% CI 1.1∼2.5) in subjects with family history compared to subjects without family history. Relative risk for the metabolic syndrome was 1.5 (95% CI 1.1∼2.1) in subjects with family history. Relative risk for the presence of the metabolic syndrome in subjects with lowest education level was 2.0 (95% CI 1.2∼3.4) when compared to subjects with the highest education level. Significant associations were found between low education and high waist circumference (OR 4.5, 95% CI 1.5∼14.0) and low HDL-C (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0∼1.4) and high blood pressure (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.6∼2.9). Conclusion : Smoking was associated with dyslipidemia. Alcohol consumption increased HDL-C and was associated with abdominal obesity. Lack of exercise was associated with obesity and dyslipidemia. Family history was associated with hypertension and diabetes. Low education level was strongly associated with hypertension and abdominal obesity. Since subjects with low education level and family history were associated with increased risk for metabolic syndrome and thus developing cardiovascular disease, particular attention should be paid in these subjects.
본 연구는 단위세대에서의 개방감을 시야각을 이용하여 평가하는 방법을 제시하며, 주동배치의 디자인과정을 돕는 유용한 전략을 탐색하였다. 기존의 개방감지표와 달리 본 연구의 시야각을 이용한 개방감 평가는 시야의 수평적 시계와 수직적 시계 범위 내에서 단위세대 거실 전면의 중앙에서 개방된 수평적 시야각과 수직적 시야각을 계산하거나 측정하는 것이다. 시야각과 시뮬레이션의 상호관계를 이용하여, 경관이나 시뮬레이션을 대상으로 하여 시야각을 측정할 수 있는 메쉬도 제시되었다. 시야각으로 개방감을 평가할 시에 그 특징은 이격거리와 시선축에서 시야각에서 차지하는 각도도 작아지는 것이다. 이에 따라 엇 ㅡ자 주동배치, 축을 비트는 방법의 배치기법을 통해 개방감이 향상시킬 수 있다. 실제 대구의 한 사례에서 주동배치 변경 후, 주동이 엇 주동배치를 이루고 있어서 수평적인 개방감이 좋은 결과를 낳았다.
The aim of the current work is to characterise a piecewisely-integrated composite bumper beam based on the IIHS bumper crash protocol. IIHS bumper crash FE analysis for an aluminium type bumper beam was carried out to get the information about the dominant loading types at several regions in the bumper beam during crash. In the meantime, robust stacking sequences against tension and compression have been searched for using FE analysis of a coupon type model. After determining most effective stacking sequences for tension and compression, three-point bending simulation was preliminarily carried out to investigate the combination performance of them. Finally, IIHS bumper crash FE analysis for the piecewisely-integrated composite bumper beam, which consisted of the combination of tension effective stacking sequence and compression efficacious stacking sequence, was conducted and the result was compared with other types of composite bumper beams. It was found that the newly suggested piecewisely integrated composite bumper beam showed superior crashworthy behaviour to those of uni-modal stacking sequence composite bumper beams. 본 연구에서는 IIHS기준 범퍼 충돌해석을 통하여, 구간 조합 복합 범퍼 빔의 특성 분석하였다. 충돌 시 범퍼 빔의 5개 영역에서 지배적인 하중 유형에 대한 정보를 얻기 위해 Al 범퍼 빔에 대한 IIHS 범퍼 충돌 해석이 진행되었다. 또한, 항공우주 분야에서 빈번히 사용되는 5가지 적층순서 중, 인장 및 압축하중에 가장 효과적인 적층순서가 복합재료 쿠폰 해석을 통해 결정되었다. 이와 더불어, 결정된 두가지 복합재료의 적층순서를 적용한 복합재료 빔에 대해 3점 굽힘 해석이 수행되었다. 마지막으로, IIHS 범퍼 충돌 해석을 진행하여 구간 조합으로 이루어진 복합재료 범퍼 빔을 다른 유형의 복합 범퍼 빔과 비교하였다. 제안된 구간조합 복합재료 범퍼 빔은 단일 적층순서로 이루어진 복합재료 범퍼 빔에 비해 우수한 충돌 특성을 나타내었다.
In order to meet competitive power, foodservice should aim to satisfy customers through distinguished quality and service as well as speciality and know-how. Especially, in coming 2000 year will be openned ASEM, 2001 will be the "Year to visit Korea", 2002 will be openned Korea-Japan Soccer World Cup, with these event as a momentum the domestic foodservice industry would be continuously increased and improved. Foodservice industry is the tertiary industry with the potentiality, tremendous popularity, premanancy and future-orient, it is gradually taking root as a basic industry after going through the industrialization. Furthermore, foodservice industry aim to satisfy customer based on quality, services, cleanliness, atmosphere, timing and value, besides, it is customer closeby service which to supply value and satisfaction through systemization, being manual, being technological renovation. Strategic management of foodservice industry is as following: Firstly, marketing strategy requires positing strategy to recongnize self-brand to the customer, thus requires to get hold how to take firm in customers′ mind. And then distingushed strategy requires. So somehow it is important to secure competitive in customers′ mind. Secondaryly, it requires strategy of competive advantegy. It is not to improve unique core competence of industry which is developed and studies for a long time but to pursuit diversfication based on core of industry Thirdly, it requires strategy of customer satisfaction. In these modern days it is important how much to satisfy customer, as it could be not expect continuous frowth and development without strategy of customer satisfaction. Therefore strategy of customer satisfaction is a necessary condition for the foodservice industry.
In this study, the mathematical model of the underwater discharge system using a centrifugal pump was derived and the rotating speed profiles of the pump which satisfied the discharge performance requirements were obtained through the underwater discharge simulations. The simulation results showed that the dynamic characteristics of a projectile were greatly affected by the rotational speed of the pump, however, hardly by the discharge depth. It is anticipated that the simulation model can be used to derive the design parameters and analyze the performance concerning the underwater discharge system using a centrifugal pump.