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Jeonho (Qianhu) is widely employed in traditional medicine and constantly has substitutes, which are adulterated and these counterfeits have posed a problem throughout each era and country. Peucedani Radix ('Jeonho' in Korean) is prescribed as the root of Angelica decursiva and Peucedanum praeruptorum in Korean pharmacopoeia. This study was performed to determine the discriminative criteria of Jeonho, focused on distribution in Korean markets, by evaluating the misunderstood situation using surveys of the ancient documents, as well as modern and contemporary literature. We have determined identification keys to discriminate each Jeonho sample selected by a survey of the literature, through observation of external morphology of original plants, and the research of external and internal morphological feature of dried Jeonho herbs. It was assumed that Anthrisci Radix come into use as a substitute of Jeonho in Korea during the time of Japanese colonial rule. In addition, due to morphological similarity, roots of other Peucedanum genus plants were often used as counterfeits of Jeonho in other countries. According to the research of literature, Pencedani Japonici Radix and Peucedani Terebinthacei Radix has a Korean medical efficiency between Jeonho and Saposhnikoviae Radix. The original plants of Jeonho and its substitutes are discriminated with phyllotaxy and shape of leaf. External morphological features of the medicinal herbs of Jeonho are different in the color of cross-sections, smell and taste, shape of cortex and stele. Internal morphological points, such as shapes of vascular tissue, crystals (Calsium-oxalate) in the cortex, and shape of pith area were also used as discriminative criteria for Jeonho. Further details(e.g. identificaion keys) are in the article. We think that these discriminative criteria will be meaningful in identifying the substitutes and adulterants of Jeonho. Physico-chemical and genetic studies would also be required in the future.
1998년 1월과 1998년 8월부터 2002년 12월까지 해안 및 도서지역인 안면도, 울진 및 제주고산에서 강수를 채취하고 수용성 이온성분을 분석하여 지역에 따른 강수 중 주요이온 성분의 특성을 비교 연구하였다.시료채취는 강수자동 채취기(wet-only sampler)를 사용하여 당일 9시부터 익일 9시까지 1일(daily) 단위로 강수 시작 시간부터 끝나는 시간까지의 시료를 수거하였다. 수거 후 pH와 전기전도도 측정은 pH 미터와 전기전도도미터를 사용하였고 이온크로마토그래프(Ion Chromatograph)를 이용하여 수용성이온성분(F^(-), Cl^(-), NO_(3)^(-), SO_(4)^(2-), Na^(+), NH_(4)^(+), K^(+), Mg^(2+), Ca^(2+))들을 분석하였다.강수의 pH와 주요 수용성이온 성분의 평균 농도는 강수량을 고려한 강수량 가중평균값으로 계산하였으며, 세 지역의 pH는 4.87 ∼ 5.06로 지역적으로 큰 차이를 나타내지 않았다. 강수 중 음이온 비율은 안면도 지역의 경우 Cl^(-), nss-SO_(4)^(2-) , NO_(3)^(-) 및 F^(-)순으로 40.3%, 37.1%, 21.2% 및 1.4%를 나타내었고, 도서지역인 제주 고산 지역과 동해안에 위치한 울진에서는 해염입자에 의한 Cl^(-)이온의 농도가 전체 음이온 성분중 약 65%로 가장 많이 기여하였으며, nss-SO_(4)^(2-), NO_(3)^(-) 이온들은 각각 약 19∼20%와 15∼16% 정도로 나타났다. 세 지역에 대한 양이온성분 중 NH_(4_^(+)의 점유율은 안면도 23.6% 제주고산 10.6% 울진 10.2%를 나타내었다.세 지역에 대한 주요 이온성분의 계절 변화는 세 지역 모두 대체로 겨울철과 봄철에 고농도를 나타낸 반면 여름철에 저농도를 나타내었다. 풍계구분에 의한 세 지역의 주요 이온성분을 비교한 결과 안면도와 울진은 대부분 풍향이 서풍계열일 때 동풍계열보다 고농도를 나타낸 반면 제주고산은 이와 반대 경향을 나타내었다.세 지역 수용성이온성분들 간의 상관성을 알아보기 위한 통계분석 결과 강수 중에 존재하는 해양기원 물질인 Na^(+)와 Cl^(-) 이온들이 높은 상관성을 나타내었으며, NO_(3)^(-)와 SO_(4)^(2-)가 NH_(4)^(+) 및 Ca^(2+) 이온과 비교적 높은 상관성을 보였으나 H^(+) 이온과는 상관성을 보이지 않아 이 세 지역 강수 중에 유입된 산성물질이 대부분 중화된 상태임을 보였다. 비해염기원 수용성 이온성분의 습성 강하량은 안면도지역이 가장 많고 고산 울진 순으로 나타났으며, H^(+) 이온의 강하량은 북미 및 유럽 등의 산성비 지역 보다 비교적 작게 나타났다. For the evaluation of the properties of major ions, the precipitations were collected in coastal and island areas-Anmyeon-do, Uljin, and Kosan of the Korean peninsula for the period of January or August 1998 and December 2002. For the collection of a precipitation, the polyethylene(PE) bottle set in a self-fabricated wet-only collector was used in this research. And then, precipitation sampling was covered whole 24 hours after a collection started at 09:00 LST. The chemical analysis was made immedia-NO_(3)^(-), SO_(4)^(2-), Na^(+), NH_(4)^(+), K^(+), Mg^(2+) and Ca^(2+).The seasonal and annual concentrations of major soluble ions were calculated by volume-weighted daily precipitation amounts. The pH of collected precipitations ranged from 4.87 to 5.06 and showed no distinct spatial or time variations. The mean pH had similar to the average pH of Japan and it was higher than that of the Northeast America and Europe, but significantly lower than that of North China.Total ion concentration was peaked in winter and spring while the lowest concentration showed in summer. The concentration of soluble ions tended to increase in Anmyeon-do and Uljin when wind blowed from westerly direction while opposite result showed in Kosan. The quantity of major anions was in order order of Cl^(-) (40.3%), nss-SO_(4)^(2-) (37.1%), NO_(3)^(-)(21.2%), and F^(-)(1.4%) at Anmyeon-do. Chloride(Cl^(-)) concentration was corresponding about 65% of the total anion and nss-SO_(4)^(2-) and NO_(3)^(-) were corresponding about 19∼20% and 15∼16% in Kosan and Uljin, respectively. The contribution of NH_(4)^(+) on total cation concentration was estimated up to 23.6%, 10.6%, and 10.2%, approximately at Anmyeon-do, Kosan, and Uljin, respectively.The statistical analysis was used to establish the qualitative relationships among chemical components in rainfall at three stations. There were a high correlation between Na^(+) and Cl^(-), NO_(3)^(-)/SO_(4)^(2-) and NH_(4)^(+)/Ca^(2+). However, H^(+) had a relatively low correlation with aforementioned ions therefore was considered that H^(+) brought into Anmyeon-do, Kosan, and Uljin would be neutralized. Non-sea salt wet depositions was in order of Anmyeon-do, Kosan, and Uljin. The wet deposition of H^(+) was approximately one third measured in North America and Europe, implying that direct impacts by proton deposition, such as from fresh water and soil acidification, were not as significant as those estimated from the wet deposition of anions.
In order to examine the change of the factors of metabolic syndrome according to the weight of high school Ssireum players, 31 students in total (7 for control group [non-athletic group] and 24 for athletic players group) were selected. Here, non-athletic group was composed of male students aged before and after 17 from Y High School who did not practice professional physical trainings and the athletic group was composed of Ssireum players from Y High School. There were 7 weight divisions specified in amateur regulations of Korea Ssireum Association; Gyeongjang, Sojang, Cheongjang, Yongjang, Yongsa, Yeoksa and Jangsa divisions) and in this study, they were classified as in the following: Gyeongjang (less than 70㎏), Sojang-Cheongjang (70-80㎏), Yongjang-Yongsa (80-90㎏) and Yeoksa-Jangsa (in excess of 90㎏). In addition, the subjects of study were high school students and were physically in good shape and they had no concrete diseases such as hypertension, diabetes and high cholesterol and did not smoke and drinkalcohol. All the data measured were obtained using an ANOVA method and were examined in the differences between groups in the significance level of 0.05. The results of study were as below.1. In the measurement of fatness for the research subjects, the waist circumference of Yongjang-Yonsa weight divisions was significantly higher (p<0.05) than control group, Gyeongjang, Sojang-Cheongjang weight divisions. That of Yeoksa-Jangsa weight divisions was significantly higher (p<0.05) than control group, Gyeongjang, Sojang-Cheongjang weight divisions. The hip circumference of Yongjang-Yongsa weight divisions was significantly higher (p<0.05) than control group, Gyeongjang, Sojang-Cheongjang weight divisions. That ofYeoksa-Jangsa weight divisions was significantly higher (p<0.05) than control group, Gyeongjang, Sojang-Cheongjang and Yongjang-Yongsa weight divisions. In terms of WHR, Yongjang-Yongsa weight divisions were significantly higher than control group (p<0.05). Yeoksa-Jangsa weight divisions were significantly higher (p<0.05) than control group, Gyeongjang, Sojang-Cheongjang and Yongjang-Yongsa weight divisions.2. In total cholestrol, Yeoksa-Jangsa weight divisions were significantly higher (p<0.05) than control group, but they had no statistical differences between Gyeongjang, Sojang-Cheongjang and Yongjang-Yongsa weight divisions. There were no statistical differences in HDL-C, LDL-C and neutral fat between the groups.3. In terms of C-responsive protein,Yeoksa-Jangsa weight divisions were statistically and significantly higher (p<0.05) than control group, Gyeongjang, Sojang-Cheongjang and Yongjang-Yongsa weight divisions.4. In terms of HR, Yeoksa-Jangsa weight divisions had significant differences (p<0.05) with Sojang-Cheongjang, but they had no statistical differences with control group, Gyeongjang and Yongjang-Yongsa weight divisions. For SBP, Gyeongjang weight division had significant differences with control group (p<0.05), but it had no differences between Sojang-Cheongjang, Yongjang-Yongsa and Yeoksa-Jangsa weight divisions. In terms of DBP, Yeoksa-jangsa weight divisions had significant differences (p<0.05) with control group, but it had no statistical differences between Gyeongjang, Sojang-Cheongjang and Yongjang-Yongsa weight divisions.5. In terms of blood sugar, the control group was significantly higher (p<0.05) than Gyeongjang, Sojang-Cheongjang and Yongjang-Yongsa and Yeoksa-Jangsa weight divisions. For Insulin, Yeoksa-Jangsa weight divisions were significantly higher (p<0.05) than control group, Gyeongjang and Yongjang-Yongsa, but they had no statistical differences with Sojang-Cheongjang weight divisions. In terms of the insulin resistance, Yeoksa-Jangsa weight divisions were statistically and significantly higher (p<0.05) than other groups. For C-peptide, Yeoksa-Jangsa weight divisions were significantly higher (p<0.05) than control group, Gyeongjang and Yongjang-Yongsa, but they had no statistical differences with Sojang-Cheongjang weight divisions.From the said research results, it could be summarized that the level of danger for metabolic syndrome according to weight was shown higher in Yeoksa-Jangsa weight divisions as found in fatness level, blood lipids, C-responsive protein, cardiovascular function, blood sugar and insulin resistance and the remaining groups had the danger level with normal scope. Therefore, when judging the diagnostic aspects of metabolic syndrome, it has been thought that the excessive overweight of Ssireum players could cause the metabolic syndrome. In this regard, it would be necessary to minimize the danger of obese metabolic syndrome caused by excessive overweight by means of paying attention to the physical characteristics of players when selecting and training them.
Nowadays Asia has reorganized to the center of trade due to the globalization of the world economy and continuous growth of Asia economy. According to the emergence of Northeast Asia as the logistic center of the world, major ports in Asia including the Port of Hong Kong, the Port of Singapore, the Port of Kobe, the Port of Kaohsiung, etc. are exerting all effort to establish themselves as the hub port by expanding port facilities and establishing large-scale logistics center. However, Korea's port facilities are capable of handing only 88% of total cargo traffic in 1999. This has resulted in inefficient handling of export-import cargo as well as an increase in logistics costs. Considering the forecast of cargo volume in the year 2011, which is expected to increase by three times compared with the current volume, therefore it is required that the existing ports as well as a new port are developed.At present, there is much difficulty for the government to secure the entire necessary funds to develop ports. Following this, government want the private capital inducement but there are many problems in raising the financial resources by private capital inducement to raise fund used in the port. This study suggest the policy of effectively raising through private capital inducement for the port construction.The first, as the method of effectively raising the capital for the port construction, we can be able to increase the developing fund of the port through the bond. That is to say, we can increase the finance of the port construction to use the bond in the domestic and international bond market.And we should relax the regulation of issuing bonds, expand the chance of issuing bonds and diversify the bond term. The second, Project financing is the financial technology whose repayment and loan are entirely depending upon the cash flows from the project. The project financing is considered as the way for financing huge a source of funds to construct port. Thus, direct investment by the private should be transferred to the indirect investment and the government must guarantee the project yield of revenue to use project financing as the resource of finance in port. In addition, although port facilities are single and big, project financing is used the port construction as to separate the several projects.The third, we have to induce the investment by foreigners. But the inducement of investment by foreigners is rare in the part of port construction. Because Korea keep low sovereign rating and yield of revenue in investment is low to compare with the other countries. Thus we effort to improve sovereign rating. And we maintain the consistent policy and make the effective investment environment to induce the investment by foreigners. As a conclusion, each financial resource is composed as the most suitable portfolio to use the financial resource of port construction, because the financial resource of port should not be supplied by one way. And we are suggested to relax the regulations that are barrier of private capital and participation in the construction of the port. Government simplify the complex permission process of construction for the effective inducement of the private capital.