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We have previously demonstrated that the level of leukocytes and neutrophils significantly increased immediately and 30 min after exercise. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is an inflammatory cytokine that acts as a chemokine on neutrophils. In the present study, we evaluated the correlation between the number of neutrophils and leukocytes, and between the number of neutrophils and plasma IL-8 level. Long-distance trained runners (TRs, n = 10) and untrained sedentary control subjects (SEDs, n = 10) ran for one hour at 70% of heart rate reserve. In the TR, the number of neutrophils correlated significantly with the number of leukocytes in the blood. However, there was no correlation between the number of neutrophils and the plasma IL-8 concentration in both groups. Expressions of IL-8 protein and mRNA were markedly higher in the TRs as compared to the SEDs at three time intervals (pre-exercise, immediately after exercise, and post exercise). In conclusion, our results show that 1) the neutrophil level was dependent on the level of leukocytes 2) there was no correlation between the neutrophils count and plasma IL-8 concentration and 3) a higher plasma IL-8 level in athletes may be a unique characteristic of intensive training.
Recently it was known that rotavirus is one of major causing agents in childhood diarrheas throughout the world. A study on viral aetiological agents of childhood diarrhea was performed with no previous report in Korea. Fiftytwo stool specimens collected from diarrhea patients in Hanyang Medical Centre during the epidemic season of late autumn to early winter were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fifty to 70 nm wheel-like rotavirus particles were present in purified material by centrifugation in the forms of double or single shelled, or empty capsids. Additionally adenovirus-like particles and bacteriophages could be observed in the same specimens with their significance as a causing agent unknown. Enzyme immuno assay (EIA) was also performed on the same specimens for rotavirus detection by immunological method, EIA results were coincided with those of electron microscopy in virus detection except 5 cases which were positive in EIA and negative in EM. Comparisions of EM and EIA methods showed that EIA has advantages over EM in sensitivity, cost, easiness and running time. On the other hand EM has advantage in its ability observing morphological characteristics of virus particles present in stool. EIA results on the above 52 specimens showed that 75% of patients clinically diagnosed as acute gastroenteritis and 61.5% of patients with diarrhea symptoms during rotavirus epidemic season were caused by rotavirus.
For the antigenic analysis of rotavirus in Korea, 96 stool specimens from diarrhea patients were collected frorn 3 hospitals in two epidemic years. Rotavirus was detected from 60 specimens by ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) using group specific monoclonal antibody. In serotyping by ELISA using subgroup specific monoclonal antibodies, Four specimens (6.7%) were subgroup I and 46 specimens (76.7%) were subgroup II. The remaining 10 specimens were belonged to intermediate. Eleven segments of RNA bands were detected from 46 specimens of 96 specimens tested (47.9%) by electrophoresis. Sixteen classes of RNA electrophoretic patterns were observed from 46 RNA positive specimens. Eighteen specimens (39.1%) were belonged to subgroup I and 27 specimens (58.7%) were subgroup II, while the remaining one (1.7%) was intermediate. Four specimens of 8 showing RNA pattern subgroup I were also belonged to ELISA subgroup I (22.2%), while 23 specimens showing RNA pattern subgroup II were belonged to ELISA subgroup II (85.2%).
Monoclonal antibodies to Hepatites B surface antigen (HBs Ag) were manufactured for its use in detailed analysis of HBV antigens and epidemiological survey. Balb/c mice showed average 1: 6,400 ELISA titers when they were immunized 2 times with purified HBs Ag and tested at the time of cell fusion. The level of immune response by mice was one of important factors in the determination of cell fusion frequencies and secretions of monoclonal antibodies by fused hybridoma cell lines. Other factors were the properties of myeloma cell lines used molecular weight of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and its reaction time. The potencies of monoclonal antibodies in culture supernatants were variable from 1: 8 depending on hybridoma lines and days after cell fusion. The monoclonsl antibodies in ascitic fluid showed hundred times higher potencies than those in culture fluids when ascitic fluids were formed by the inoculation of Balb/c mice with established hybridoma lines.