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Regarding the recent switch from the fixed base price index to the chained-type price index in many countries, we examine important issues including the selection of the weight to produce more accurate chained-type price indices and to maintain statistical consistency in the time series of a price index in this study. We determine that the actual weight from year t-3 data better produces a more correct chained-type producer price index at t between two available methods of selecting the weights. This weighting method also provides generally better statistical consistency and stability for the chained-type producer price index. We also compare the MAE and RMSE of the price equations of the fixed base and chain indices. Both the unit root test and comparison of the model performance evaluation reveal no critical difference, thus confirming a stability over the two indices. In particular, the substitutability of the chain index for the fixed base index is highly obtained, regardless of the time horizon. Overall, we can confidently assert that the chain index provides a statistical consistency and stability over a fixed base index.
목적: 에스트로겐은 여러 에스트로겐 의존형 종양에서 그 성장에 관여하며, 정상 조직과 에스트로겐 의존성 종양에 다양한 종류의 에스트로겐 수용체가 존재한다는 실험결과가 기존에 많이 나와 있다. 최근에는 Exon 5 결손 에스트로겐 수용체 (D5-ER)가 많은 에스트로겐 의존형 종양에서 발견되었다. 본 연구에서는 자궁 근종과 D5-ER사이의 상호관계를 규명하고자 하는 것이 목적이다. 연구방법: 12명의 자궁 근종 환자와 12명의 대조군 에서 얻은 자궁근육층과 자궁 근종 조직에서 RT-PCR 을 이용해 D5-ER mRNA 와 wild type 에스트로겐 수용체(WT) mRNA의 상대적인 양을 측정하였다. WT/D5-ER 비율과 나이와의 상관관계도 측정하여 보았다. 결과: WT/D5-ER 의 값은 자궁근종 환자의 정상 자궁근층에서는 6.81±1.18 자궁근종에서는 6.40±1.20 으로 나타났고 대조군의 자궁 근층에서는 6.57±0.91로 나타나서 대조 군과 자궁근종 군, 자궁근종과 정상 자궁근층 사이에 통계학적 차이는 나타나지 않았다. 정상 자궁 근층내의 WT/D5-ER값과 나이의 상관관계를 조사하였으나 두 값 사이의 상관관계는 발견할 수 없었다 그러나 자궁 근종 조직내의 WT/D5-ER과 나이와의 상관관계를 조사해 본 결과 Rs= -0.789, p=0.002로 음의 상관관계를 나타내었다 결론: D5-ER은 대부분의 여성에서 흔히 일어나는 돌연변이이며 이는 자궁 근종의 생성과는 관계가 없는 것으로 여겨진다. 그러나 자궁근종내의 D5-ER은 자궁 근종의 성장과 관련이 있을 가능성이 있다. Objective: There is a large and increasing body of experimental and clinical data supporting the existence of variable estrogen receptors in both normal and neoplastic estrogen target tissue. Recently, exon 5 deleted estrogen receptor(D5-ER) has been identified in many estrogen dependent tumors. The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between uterine myoma and D5-ER. Methods: The relative amount of wild type estrogen receptor mRNA and D5-ER mRNA were examined in human myometrium and myoma tissue obtained from 12 myoma patients and 12 control subjects by RT-PCR. The correlation between WT/D5-ER ratio and age was also evaluated. Results: There was no difference in expression of D5-ER mRNA not only between myoma and myometrim of the myoma patients, but also between myometrium of myoma patients and normal subjects. No significant correlation was found between D5-ER expression and age of the subjects in myometrial tissue. However, we could find negative correlation between WT/D5-ER ratio and age in myoma tissue. Conclusion: Upon these data, we conclude that D5-ER is a common variant mutation of estrogen receptor, which is not related with development of myoma. However, in myoma tissue, there is possibility that D5-ER may act some role in the growth of tumor.
Several recent studies have detected genetic and cytogenetic alterations in epithelial odontogenic tumors. However, the detailed mechanisms of oncogenesis, cytodifferention, and tumor progression remain unknown. p63 as p53 homolog gene has been identified at loci 3q27-29. The p53 signaling cascade has an important role in oncogenesis or cyto- differentiation of odontogenic epithelium. Recently, several syndromes associated with p63 gene mutations have shown to include various tooth abnormalities of both the primary and permanent dentition. But little is known about p63 expression in odontogenic tumors, especially ameloblastomas. The purpose of this study were to examine various expression of p63 in ameloblastomas by immunohistochemistry and to clarify the possible biological role of p63 in ameloblastomas. 15 specimens including 6 follicular, 4 plexiform, 3 acanthomatous, and 2 granular cell types were fixed in 10% neutral formalin. 4um thick sections were used for routine H&E and immunohistochemical examinations. After immuno-histochemical satining, they were examined at a final magnification of 400X. For each case a minimum of 1000 nuclei located in the central and peripheral layers were counted in up to 10 consecutive microscopic fields per case. The immunoreactive cells were evaluated semiquantitatively. Immunoreactivity for p63 in all the types of ameloblastomas was higher in peripheral neoplastic cells than in central neoplastic cells. Keratinizing cells in acanthomatous ameloblastoma and granular cells in granular cell ameloblastoma showed markedly decreased reactivity for p63 in acanthomatous and granular cell ameloblastoma. Labelling index of acanthomatous,plexiform, and granular cell type was 86±11%, 81±17% and 83±15% in peripheral area while 88±14%, 82±11% and 76±10% in central area, respectively. Labelling index of follicular type was 17±4% in peripheral area while 21±3% in central area. There was no significant relationship between plexiform, acanthomaous, and granular cell type, while significant relationships between follicular and acanthomatous type, between plexiform and follicular type, and between granular cell and follicular type, respectively. It suggested that p63 expression could paly an important role in the pathogenesis of ameloblastomas. Morever plexiform, acanthomatous,and granular cell type would show more aggressive proliferative potentiality than follicular type.
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of diethyl maleate(DEM) on the carcinogenesis of forestomach and pyloric glandular stomach in rats caused by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine(MNNG). A total of 60 male 6-week-old Wistar rats were given twice intragastric injection of MMNG(200mg/kg BW), then were given diets containing 5% NaCl for 3 weeks until 4th week of the experiment. And then the animals of groups of 1 and 2 were placed on diets containing 0.2% DEM for 16 weeks until the end of 20 weeks of the experiment. On the other hand, the animals of groups of 3 and 4 were placed on basal diets for the same periods. The tissues of forestomach and liver of each group were frozen in liquid nitrogen and the activities of quinone reductase(QR) were determined by measurement of the dicoumarol-sensitive reduction of dichloro-indophenol by NADPH at 600nm. All rats were sacrificed at the end of 20 weeks of the experiment. Every animal was fasted for 24 hrs prior to sacrifice. The forestomach was fixed in 10% neutral phosphate buffered formalin for histology and the pyloric gland was fixed in sublimated formalin for immunohistochemistry of pepsinogen 1 altered pyloric gland(PAPG). The final body weight of the group given MNNG and treated with 5% NaCI and DEM was significantly decreased compared with that of the group 4(p<0.05). Food and water consumption rates were not significantly changed. The preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the forestomach given MNNG and treated with 5% NaCI and DEM were significantly increased compared to those of the group 4(p<0.0l). The incidence of PAPG in the groups treated with 0.2% DEM was significantly increased compared with that of the group 4(group 1:p<0.01, group 2:p<0.05). The activities of QR of forestomach in the groups treated with 0.2% DEM were significanitly increased compared with those of the group 4(p<0.001), but those of liver were not significant. These results indicate that DEM exert the enhancing effect of forestomach and glandular stomach carcinogenesis in rats pretreated with MNNG and NaCl.
This paper examines the relationship between the demographic structure and asset prices in Korea based on the standard life-cycle model. To this end, this paper employs a non-parametric model which has an advantage of no functional form for the relationship a priori. We find that the estimated relation between the real interest rate and population density function is consistent with the implication from life-cycle models, whereas the relation between the normalized stock price and population density function is not. The projection based on the projected population estimates indicates that the real interest rate is going to rise until the 2020 due to the increase trend of old consumers and their dissaving behavior after the retirement.
The objective of this study was to determine genotoxic potential of Geranti Bio-Ge YeastⓇ, an organic germanium naturally synthesized in yeasts. For the in vitro reverse mutation test, we set the treatment levels of Geranti Bio-Ge YeastⓇ at 312.5, 625, 1,250, 2,500 and 5,000 ㎍/plate using Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA1535, TA1537, TA98 and TA100) and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA (pKM101). No significant mutagenic activity was observed both in the presence and absence of S9 mix with all Salmonella and Escherichia strains used. For the in vitro chromosomal aberration test using Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts, we set the treatment levels of Geranti Bio-Ge Yeast® at 1,250, 2,500 and 5,000 ㎍/㎖, No significant increase in the structural and numerical chromosome aberration was observed in both the presence and absence of S9 mix. In the micronucleus test, mice were orally administered with 125, 250, 500, 1,000, 2,000 or 5,000 ㎎/㎏ of Geranti Bio-Ge Yeast®, or intraperitoneally with mitomycin C as a positive control. The mice were sacrificed 24 hours later, and bone marrow was collected and stained with Giemsa solution. There was no evidence that Geranti Bio-Ge Yeast® significantly induced micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. In conclusion, it is suggested that Geranti Bio-Ge Yeast® do not have a genotoxic potential under the conditions of this study. 목차